Simply AlF3-treated Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable and ultrahigh power lithium-ion batteries
Xu W, X Chen, W Wang, D Choi, F Ding, J Zheng, Z Nie, YJ Choi, J Zhang, and Z Yang. 2013. "Simply AlF3-treated Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable and ultrahigh power lithium-ion batteries." Journal of Power Sources 236:169-174. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.02.055
The commercial Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) is successfully modified by AlF3 via a low temperature process. After being calcined at 400oC for 5 hours, AlF3 reacts with LTO to form a composite material which mainly consists of Al3+ and F- co-doped LTO with small amounts of anatase TiO2 and Li3AlF6. Al3+ and F- co-doped LTO demonstrates largely improved rate capability comparing to the pristine LTO. Since the amount of the byproduct TiO2 is relatively small, the modified LTO electrodes retain the main voltage characteristics of LTO with a minor feature similar to those of anatase TiO2. The doped LTO anodes deliver higher discharge capacity and significantly improved high-rate performance when compared to the pristine LTO anode. They also demonstrate excellent long-term cycling stability at elevated temperatures. Therefore, Al3+ and F- co-doped LTO synthesized at low temperature is an excellent anode for stable and ultra-high power lithium-ion batteries.