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Staff information

Tiffany Kaspar

Materials Sciences
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K8-87
Richland, WA 99352


Dr. Kaspar joined PNNL as a graduate student in 2000. After graduation, she remained as a post-doctoral researcher, and was hired as a full-time staff scientist in Scott Chambers' Oxide Epitaxy group in 2007.

Dr. Kaspar's research interests include the epitaxial growth (via oxygen-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy or pulsed laser deposition) and structural characterization of metallic and metal oxide films. Structure-property relationships can then be made with physical phenomena such as magnetic and electronic properties. Previous work focused on the magnetic properties of transition-metal-doped TiO2 and ZnO as potential dilute magnetic semiconductors. More recent work has investigated the electronic, photoactive, and magnetic properties of doped binary and complex oxides. Particular emphasis is placed on the relationship between the electronic changes that occur with doping and the resulting photoabsorption and carrier generation processes. Other recent research areas have included the structural characterization of lattice-mismatched epitaxial metal films on oxide substrates for radiation damage studies, and the development of new complex oxides as high temperature, radiation-resistant piezoelectrics for use in advanced in situ sensors.

Research Interests

  • Epitaxial growth and structural characterization of metallic and metal oxide films
  • Magnetic and electronic properties of doped metal oxide films
  • Electronic and photochemical characterization of materials relevant for solar energy applications
  • Development of complex oxides as high temperature piezoelectrics

Education and Credentials

  • University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, B.S.Chemical Engineering, (1998)
  • University of Washington, Seattle, WA, Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, (2004)
  • Pacific Northwest National Lab, Richland, WA, Post-doctoral Fellow, (2004-07)

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Elected member of EMSL User Executive Committee (2015-2018)
  • American Vacuum Society (1999-present)
  • Pacific Northwest Chapter AVS (PNWAVS): Secretary (2013-present); PNNL Representative (2009-2015); Chair (2012); Vice-Chair (2011)
  • Co-chair of joint PNW-AVS and Surface Analysis 2012 Symposium, June 20-22, 2012 in EMSL, Richland, WA
  • Attended AVS Short Course Photovoltaics (2010)
  • Serve on Argonne National Laboratory's Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) Proposal Review Board

Awards and Recognitions

  • 2015: Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate Physical Sciences Division Research Highlights: “Creating a Super Lattice: Zipping Electrons, Jumping Holes, and the Quest for Solar Fuels”
  • 2014: American Physical Society Outstanding Reviewer
  • 2010: Fundamental and Computation Sciences Directorate Chemical and Materials Sciences Division Research Highlights: "A rare form of silver observed during routine calibration,"
  • 2008: Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate Staff Awards and Honors highlight: "Nature Materials highlights careful characterization of candidate spintronic material,"
  • 2008: EMSL Science Made Possible highlight: "New study shows hidden secondary phases in cobalt-doped zinc oxide,"
  • 2004 - 2006: Joint Institute for Nanoscience Postdoctoral Fellowship
  • 2006: Young Scientist Award, 33rd PCSI Conference

PNNL Publications


  • Nayyar IH, SE Chamberlin, TC Kaspar, N Govind, SA Chambers, and P Sushko. 2017. "Effect of doping and chemical ordering on the optoelectronic properties of complex oxides: Fe2O3V2O3 solid solutions and hetero-structures." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 19(2):1097-1107.  doi:10.1039/C6CP06087K


  • Kaspar TC, DK Schreiber, SR Spurgeon, ME McBriarty, GM Carroll, DR Gamelin, and SA Chambers. 2016. "Built-in Potential in Fe2O3-Cr2O3 Superlattices for Improved Photoexcited Carrier Separation." Advanced Materials 28(8):1616-1622.  doi:10.1002/adma.201504545
  • Kaspar TC, P Sushko, ME Bowden, SM Heald, A Papadogianni, CM Tschammer, O Bierwagen, and SA Chambers. 2016. "Defect compensation by Cr vacancies and oxygen interstitials in Ti4+-doped Cr2O3 epitaxial thin films." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 94(15):Article No. 155409.  doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.94.155409
  • Comes RB, TC Kaspar, SM Heald, ME Bowden, and SA Chambers. 2016. "Infrared Optical Absorption in Low-spin Fe2+-doped SrTiO3." Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 28(3):Article No. 035901.  doi:10.1088/0953-8984/28/3/035901
  • Schwenzer B, TC Kaspar, Y Shin, and DW Gotthold. 2016. "Spectroscopic study of graphene oxide membranes exposed to ultraviolet light." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 120(23):12559-12567.  doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b03033
  • Yu Y, AY Nikiforov, TC Kaspar, JC Woicik, KF Ludwig, S Gopalan, UB Pal, and SN Basu. 2016. "Chemical characterization of surface precipitates in La0.7Sr0.3Co0.2Fe0.8O3-d as cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells." Journal of Power Sources 333:247-253.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.09.166
  • Yu Y, KF Ludwig, JC Woicik, S Gopalan, UB Pal, TC Kaspar, and SN Basu. 2016. "Effect of Sr Content and Strain on Sr Surface Segregation of La1-xSrxCo0.2Fe0.8O3-delta as Cathode Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8(40):26704-26711.  doi:10.1021/acsami.6b07118


  • Chamberlin SE, IH Nayyar, TC Kaspar, P Sushko, and SA Chambers. 2015. "Electronic structure and optical properties of a-(Fe1-xVx)2O3 solid-solution thin films." Applied Physics Letters 106(4):041905.  doi:10.1063/1.4906597
  • Comes RB, SY Smolin, TC Kaspar, R Gao, BA Apgar, LW Martin, ME Bowden, J Baxter, and SA Chambers. 2015. "Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films." Applied Physics Letters 109(9):Article No. 092901.  doi:10.1063/1.4913930
  • Kaspar TC, ME Bowden, CM Wang, V Shutthanandan, NR Overman, RM Van Ginhoven, BD Wirth, and RJ Kurtz. 2015. "Epitaxial Fe/Y2O3 interfaces as a model system for oxide-dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys." Journal of Nuclear Materials 457:352-361.  doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2014.11.046


  • Kaspar TC, SE Chamberlin, ME Bowden, RJ Colby, V Shutthanandan, S Manandhar, Y Wang, P Sushko, and SA Chambers. 2014. "Impact of Lattice Mismatch and Stoichiometry on the Structure and Bandgap of (Fe,Cr)2O3 Epitaxial Thin Films." Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 26(13):Article No. 135005.  doi:10.1088/0953-8984/26/13/135005
  • Chamberlin SE, TC Kaspar, ME Bowden, V Shutthanandan, BC Kabius, SM Heald, D Keavney, and SA Chambers. 2014. "Structural perturbations of epitaxial a-(Fe1-xVx)2O3 thin films driven by excess oxygen near the surface." Journal of Applied Physics 116(23):Article No. 233702.  doi:10.1063/1.4903839
  • Devaraj A, TC Kaspar, S Ramanan, SK Walvekar, ME Bowden, V Shutthanandan, and RJ Kurtz. 2014. "Nanoscale Phase Separation In Epitaxial Cr-Mo and Cr-V Alloy Thin Films Studied Using Atom Probe Tomography: Comparison Of Experiments And Simulation." Journal of Applied Physics 116(19):Article No. 193512.  doi:10.1063/1.4901465
  • Kaspar TC, ME Bowden, CM Wang, V Shutthanandan, S Manandhar, RM Van Ginhoven, BD Wirth, and RJ Kurtz. 2014. "Defect Structure of Epitaxial CrxV1 - x Thin Films on MgO(001)." Thin Solid Films 550:1-9.  doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2013.09.067


  • Kaspar TC, SE Chamberlin, and SA Chambers. 2013. "Surface structure of a-Cr2O3(0001) after activated oxygen exposure." Surface Science 618:159-166.  doi:10.1016/j.susc.2013.09.005
  • Wang CM, TC Kaspar, V Shutthanandan, AG Joly, L Kovarik, BW Arey, M Gu, A Devaraj, BD Wirth, and RJ Kurtz. 2013. "Structure And Radiation Damage Behavior Of Epitaxial CrxMo1-x Alloy Thin Films On MgO." Journal of Nuclear Materials 437(1-3):55-61.  doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2013.01.345
  • Chamberlin SE, Y Wang, KA Lopata, TC Kaspar, A Cohn, DR Gamelin, N Govind, PV Sushko, and SA Chambers. 2013. "Optical Absorption and Spectral Photoconductivity in a-(Fe1-xCrx)2O3 Solid-Solution Thin Films." Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 25(39):392002.  doi:10.1088/0953-8984/25/39/392002
  • Jaffe JE, TC Kaspar, TC Droubay, and T Varga. 2013. "Band offsets for mismatched interfaces: The special case of ZnO on CdTe (001)." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A--Vacuum, Surfaces and Films 31(6):061102.  doi:10.1116/1.4816951
  • Kovacs A, A Ney, M Duchamp, V Ney, C Boothroyd, PL Galindo, TC Kaspar, SA Chambers, and R Dunin-Borkowski. 2013. "Defects in paramagnetic Co-doped ZnO films studied by transmission electron microscopy." Journal of Applied Physics 114(24):243503.  doi:10.1063/1.4851015
  • Li B, J Zhang, TC Kaspar, V Shutthanandan, RC Ewing, and J Lian. 2013. "Multilayered YSZ/GZO films with greatly enhanced ionic conduction for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 15(4):1296-1301.  doi:10.1039/C2CP42964K
  • Xia Y, K Zhu, TC Kaspar, Y Du, B Birmingham, KT Park, and Z Zhang. 2013. "Atomic Structure of the Anatase TiO2(001) Surface." Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 4(17):2958-2963.  doi:10.1021/jz401284u


  • Kaspar TC, A Ney, AN Mangham, SM Heald, Y Joly, V Ney, F Wilhelm, A Rogalev, F Yakou, and SA Chambers. 2012. "Structure of epitaxial (Fe,N) codoped rutile TiO2 thin films by x-ray absorption." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 86(3):035322.  doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.86.035322
  • Kaspar TC, and TC Droubay. 2012. "Variation in band offsets at ZnO/Sn:In2O3 (ITO) heterojunctions measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A--Vacuum, Surfaces and Films 30(4): 04D112.  doi:10.1116/1.4719541
  • Davis JN, LJ Miara, LV Saraf, TC Kaspar, S Gopalan, UB Pal, JC Woicik, SN Basu, and KF Ludwig. 2012. "Hard X-ray Fluorescence Measurements of Heteroepitaxial Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode Materials." ECS Transactions 41(11):19-24.  doi:10.1149/1.3687387
  • Du Y, DJ Kim, TC Kaspar, SE Chamberlin, I Lyubinetsky, and SA Chambers. 2012. "In-situ imaging of the nucleation and growth of epitaxial anatase TiO2(001) films on SrTiO3(001)." Surface Science 606(17-18):1443-1449.  doi:10.1016/j.susc.2012.05.010
  • Kaspar TC, ME Bowden, T Varga, CM Wang, V Shutthanandan, AG Joly, BD Wirth, and RJ Kurtz. 2012. "Structural characterization of epitaxial CrxMo1-x alloy thin films." Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter 24(9):095001.  doi:10.1088/0953-8984/24/9/095001
  • McCloy JS, CJ Leslie, TC Kaspar, W Jiang, and RK Bordia. 2012. "Magnetic behavior of Ni and Co doped CuMn2O4 spinels." Journal of Applied Physics 111(7):Article No. 07E149. 


  • Kaspar TC, TC Droubay, and JE Jaffe. 2011. "ZnO/Sn:In2O3 and ZnO/CdTe band offsets for extremely thin absorber photovoltaics ." Applied Physics Letters 99(26):263504.  doi:10.1063/1.3672218
  • Qiao L, TC Droubay, ME Bowden, V Shutthanandan, TC Kaspar, and SA Chambers. 2011. "LaCrO3 heteroepitaxy on SrTiO3(001) by molecular beam epitaxy ." Applied Physics Letters 99(6):Art. No. 061904.  doi:10.1063/1.3624473
  • Qiao L, TC Droubay, T Varga, ME Bowden, V Shutthanandan, Z Zhu, TC Kaspar, and SA Chambers. 2011. "Epitaxial growth, structure and intermixing at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface as the film stoichiometry is varied." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 83(8):085408.  doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.83.085408
  • Qiao L, TC Droubay, TC Kaspar, PV Sushko, and SA Chambers. 2011. "Cation mixing, band offsets and electric fields at LaAlO3/SrTiO3(001) heterojunctions with variable La:Al atom ratio." Surface Science 605(15-16):1381-1387.  doi:10.1016/j.susc.2011.04.035
  • Wang CM, TC Kaspar, V Shutthanandan, AG Joly, and RJ Kurtz. 2011. "Structure of Cr Film Epitaxially Grown on MgO (001)." Acta Materialia 59(11):4274-4282.  doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2011.03.051
  • Chambers SA, L Qiao, TC Droubay, TC Kaspar, BW Arey, and PV Sushko. 2011. "Band Alignment, Built-In Potential, and the Absence of Conductivity at the LaCrO3/SrTiO3(001) Heterojunction." Physical Review Letters 107(20):Article No. 206802.  doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.206802
  • Johnson CA, A Cohn, TC Kaspar, SA Chambers, GM Salley, and DR Gamelin. 2011. "Visible-light photoconductivity of Zn1-xCoxO and its dependence on Co2+ concentration." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 84(12):Article No. 125203.  doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.84.125203
  • Zhao B, TC Kaspar, TC Droubay, JS McCloy, ME Bowden, V Shutthanandan, SM Heald, and SA Chambers. 2011. "Electrical transport properties of Ti-doped Fe2O3(0001) epitaxial films." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 84(24):245325.  doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.84.245325


  • Kaspar TC, TC Droubay, and SA Chambers. 2010. "Atomic oxygen flux determined by mixed-phase Ag/Ag2O deposition." Thin Solid Films 519(2):635-640.  doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2010.08.081
  • Kaspar TC, TC Droubay, SA Chambers, and PS Bagus. 2010. "Spectroscopic evidence for Ag(III) in highly oxidized silver films by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 114(49):2156221571.  doi:10.1021/jp107914e
  • Droubay TC, L Qiao, TC Kaspar, MH Engelhard, V Shutthanandan, and SA Chambers. 2010. "Non-stoichiometric material transfer in the pulsed laser deposition of LaAlO3." Applied Physics Letters 97(12):124105.  doi:10.1063/1.3487778
  • Jaffe JE, TC Kaspar, TC Droubay, T Varga, ME Bowden, and GJ Exarhos. 2010. "Electronic and defect structure of CuSCN." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 114(19):9111-9117.  doi:10.1021/jp101586q
  • Johnson CA, TC Kaspar, SA Chambers, GM Salley, and DR Gamelin. 2010. "Sub-band-gap photoconductivity in Co2+-doped ZnO." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 81(12):Article Number: 125206 .  doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.81.125206
  • Johnson CA, KR Kittilstved, TC Kaspar, TC Droubay, SA Chambers, GM Salley, and DR Gamelin. 2010. "Mid-Gap Electronic States in Zn1 xMnxO." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 82(11):Art. No. 115202. 
  • McCloy JS, JV Ryan, TC Droubay, TC Kaspar, SA Chambers, and D Look. 2010. "Magnetotransport Properties of High Quality Co:ZnO and Mn:ZnO Single Crystal Pulsed Laser Deposition films: Pitfalls Associated with Magnetotransport on High Resistivity Materials ." Review of Scientific Instruments 81(6):Art. No. 063902.  doi:10.1063/1.3436648
  • Miara LJ, LFJ Piper, JN Davis, LV Saraf, TC Kaspar, S Basu, KE Smith, UB Pal, and S Gopalan. 2010. "SURFACE SEGREGATION STUDIES OF SOFC CATHODES: COMBINING SOFT X-RAYS AND ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDENCE SPECTROSCOPY." In Materials Research Society (MRS) Symposium Proceedings: Catalytic Materials for Energy, Green Processes and Nanotechnology, November 30 - December 3, 2009, Boston, MA, vol. 1217, ed. CY Mou, S Dai, HH Kung and J Liu, pp. 145-150.  Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA. 
  • Ney A, M Opel, TC Kaspar, V Ney, S Ye, K Ollefs, T Kammermeier, S Bauer, KW Nielsen, ST Goennenwein, MH Engelhard, S Zhou, K Potzger, J Simon, W Mader, SM Heald, JC Cezar, F Wilhelm, A Rogalev, R Gross, and SA Chambers. 2010. "Advanced Spectroscopic Synchrotron Techniques to Unravel the Intrinsic Properties of Dilute Magnetic Oxides: The Case of Co:ZnO." New Journal of Physics 12:Art. No. 013020.  doi:10.1088/1367-2630/12/1/013020
  • Ney A, T Kammermeier, K Ollefs, S Ye, V Ney, TC Kaspar, SA Chambers, F Wilhelm, and A Rogalev. 2010. "Anisotropic Paramagnetism of Co-doped ZnO Epitaxial Films." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 81(5):Art. No. 054420.  doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.81.054420
  • Ney A, V Ney, S Ye, K Ollefs, T Kammermeier, TC Kaspar, SA Chambers, F Wilhelm, and A Rogalev. 2010. "Magnetism of Co doped ZnO with Al codoping: carrier induced mechanisms versus extrinsic origins ." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 82(4):041202.  doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.82.041202
  • Ney V, S Ye, T Kammermeier, K Ollefs, A Ney, TC Kaspar, SA Chambers, F Wilhelm, and A Rogalev. 2010. "Tuning the magnetic properties of Zn1-xCoxO films." Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 322(9-12):1232-1234.  doi:10.1016/j.jmmm.2009.04.024
  • Piper LFJ, ARH Preston, SW Cho, A DeMasi, B Chen, J Laverock, KE Smith, LJ Miara, JN Davis, S Basu, UB Pal, S Gopalan, LV Saraf, TC Kaspar, AY Matsuura, PA Glans, and J Guo. 2010. "Soft X-Ray Spectroscopic Study of Dense Strontium-Doped Lanthanum Manganite Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 158(2):B99-B105.  doi:10.1149/1.3519075


  • Droubay TC, TC Kaspar, BP Kaspar, and SA Chambers. 2009. "Cation dopant distributions in nanostructures of transition-metal doped ZnO:Monte Carlo simulations." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 79(7):Art. No. 075324. 
  • Droubay TC, D Keavney, TC Kaspar, SM Heald, CM Wang, CA Johnson, KM Whitaker, DR Gamelin, and SA Chambers. 2009. "Correlated substitution in paramagnetic Mn2+-doped ZnO epitaxial films." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 79(15):Article number:155203. 
  • Heald SM, TC Kaspar, TC Droubay, and SA Chambers. 2009. "Characterization of Thin Films by XAFS: Application to Spintronics Materials." In Materials Science and Technology 2009 Conference and Exhibition, pp. 688-697.  ASM International, Warrendale, PA. 
  • Heald SM, TC Kaspar, TC Droubay, V Shutthanandan, SA Chambers, A Mokhtari, AJ Behan, HJ Blythe, JR Neal, M Fox, and G Gehring. 2009. "X-ray absorption fine structure and magnetization characterization of the metallic Co component in Co-doped ZnO thin films ." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 79(7):Art. No. 075202. 
  • Kammermeier T, V Ney, S Ye, K Ollefs, TC Kaspar, SA Chambers, F Wilhelm, A Rogalev, and A Ney. 2009. "Element specific measurements of the structural properties and magnetism of CoxZn1-xO." Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 321 (7):699-701 .  doi:10.1016/j.jmmm.2008.11.028


  • Kaspar TC, TC Droubay, SM Heald, MH Engelhard, P Nachimuthu, and SA Chambers. 2008. "Hidden Ferromagnetic Secondary Phases in Cobalt-doped ZnO Epitaxial Thin Films." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 77(20):201303.  doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.77.201303
  • Kaspar TC, TC Droubay, SM Heald, P Nachimuthu, CM Wang, V Shutthanandan, CA Johnson, DR Gamelin, and SA Chambers. 2008. "Lack of ferromagnetism in n-type cobalt-doped ZnO epitaxial thin films." New Journal of Physics 10:Art. No. 055010.  doi:10.1088/1367-2630/10/5/055010
  • Li Y, TC Kaspar, TC Droubay, AG Joly, P Nachimuthu, Z Zhu, V Shutthanandan, and SA Chambers. 2008. "A Study of H and D doped ZnO epitaxial films grown by pulsed laser deposition." Journal of Applied Physics 104(5):Article no. 053711.  doi:10.1063/1.2975219
  • Li Y, TC Kaspar, TC Droubay, Z Zhu, V Shutthanandan, P Nachimuthu, and SA Chambers. 2008. "Electronic properties of H and D doped ZnO epitaxial films." Applied Physics Letters 92(15):Art. No. 152105. 
  • Ney A, K Ollefs, S Ye, T Kammermeier, V Ney, TC Kaspar, SA Chambers, F Wilhelm, and A Rogalev. 2008. "Absence of Intrinsic Ferromagnetic Interactions of Isolated and Paired Co Dopant Atoms in Zn1-xCoxO with High Structural Perfection." Physical Review Letters 100(15):Art. No. 157201.  doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.157201


  • Kaspar TC, TC Droubay, DE McCready, P Nachimuthu, SM Heald, CM Wang, AS Lea, V Shutthanandan, SA Chambers, and MF Toney. 2006. "Magnetic properties of epitaxial Co-doped anatase TiO2 thin films with excellent structural quality." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B--Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures 24(4):2012-2017.  doi:10.1116/1.2216723
  • Kaspar TC, TC Droubay, V Shutthanandan, SM Heald, CM Wang, DE McCready, S Thevuthasan, JD Bryan, DR Gamelin, AJ Kellock, MF Toney, X Hong, C Ahn, and SA Chambers. 2006. "Ferromagnetism and structure of epitaxial Cr-doped anatase TiO2 thin films." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 73(15):155327 (12 p.).  doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.73.155327
  • Shutthanandan V, S Thevuthasan, TC Droubay, TC Kaspar, A Punnoose, J Hays, and SA Chambers. 2006. "Quantification of Dopant Concentrations in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors using Ion Beam Techniques." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 249(1-2):402-405.  doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2006.04.038


  • Chambers SA, TC Droubay, and TC Kaspar. 2005. "Epitaxial Growth and Properties of Magnetically Doped TiO2." Chapter 7 in Thin Films and Heterostructures for Oxide Electronics, ed. Satishchandra B. Ogale, pp. 219-247.  Springer, New York, NY. 
  • Kaspar TC, SM Heald, CM Wang, JD Bryan, TC Droubay, V Shutthanandan, S Thevuthasan, DE McCready, AJ Kellock, DR Gamelin, and SA Chambers. 2005. "Negligible Magnetism in Excellent Structural Quality CrxTi1-xO2 Anatase: Contrast with High-Tc Ferromagnetism in Structurally Defective CrxTi1-xO2." Physical Review Letters 95:217203.  doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.217203
  • Kaspar TC, TC Droubay, CM Wang, SM Heald, AS Lea, and SA Chambers. 2005. "Co-doped Anatase TiO2 Heteroepitaxy on Si(001)." Journal of Applied Physics 97(7):073511-073511-10.  doi:10.1063/1.1868854
  • Osterwalder J, TC Droubay, TC Kaspar, JR Williams, CM Wang, and SA Chambers. 2005. "Growth of Cr-doped TiO2 Films in the Rutile and Anatase Structures by Oxygen Plasma Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy ." Thin Solid Films 484(1-2):289-298. 


  • Chambers SA, TC Droubay, TC Kaspar, and MS Gutowski. 2004. "Accurate Valence Band Maximum Determination for SrTiO3(001) ." Surface Science 554(2-3):81-89. 
  • Chambers SA, TC Droubay, TC Kaspar, and MS Gutowski. 2004. "Experimental Determination of Valence Band Maxima for SrTiO3, TiO2, and SrO and the Associated Valence Band Offsets with Si(001)." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B--Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures 22(4):2205-2215. 
  • Chambers SA, TC Droubay, TC Kaspar, and MS Gutowski. 2004. "Experimental determination of valence band maxima for SrTiO3,TiO2, and SrO and the associated valence band offsets with Si(001)." In 31st Conference on the Physics and Chemistry of Semiconductor Interfaces (PCSI). Published in Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 2205-2215.  American Vacuum Society, New York, NY.  doi:
  • Shutthanandan V, S Thevuthasan, SM Heald, TC Droubay, MH Engelhard, TC Kaspar, DE McCready, LV Saraf, SA Chambers, BS Mun, NM Hamdan, P Nachimuthu, B Taylor, R Sears, and B Sinkovic. 2004. "Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in Ion-implanted Co-doped TiO2(110) Rutile." Applied Physics Letters 84(22):4466-4468. 
  • Shutthanandan V, S Thevuthasan, SM Heald, TC Droubay, MH Engelhard, TC Kaspar, DE McCready, LV Saraf, SA Chambers, BS Mun, NM Hamdan, P Nachimuthu, B Taylor, R Sears, and B Sinkovic. 2004. "Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism in Ion-Implanted Co-Doped TiO2(110) Rutile." Applied Physics Letters 84(22):4466-4468. 


  • Kaspar TC, AC Tuan, RG Tonkyn, WP Hess, JW Rogers, Jr., and Y Ono. 2003. "The Role of O(1D) in the Oxidation of Si(100)." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B--Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures 21(2):895-899. 
  • Tuan AC, TC Kaspar, TC Droubay, JW Rogers, Jr, and SA Chambers. 2003. "Band Offsets for the Epitaxial TiO2/SrTiO3/Si(001) System." Applied Physics Letters 83(18):3734-3736. 

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