Atmospheric Sciences & Global Change Division
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352
Dr. Qian joined PNNL in 2000 and currently is a senior scientist, group lead and Associate Division Director in Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change division.
Dr. Qian's research passion has been the climate modeling and the aerosol-climate-water interactions. He is one of the pioneer scientists in studying the China aerosol and its climatic impact. He is leading projects investigating the impacts of snow and ice impurities on climate and water resource, and studying the aerosol sub-grid progress and parameterization in climate model. He is also interested in the hydrology-land-atmosphere interaction, particularly on the impact of urbanization and irrigation. Recently, his interest focuses on the uncertainty quantification in climate modeling.
Dr. Qian's research has generated tremendous impacts among the scientific community and public. His research is prominently featured by the Nature and Science, as well as Associate Press, New York Times, BBC, China Daily, and many other news media. Dr. Qian has published more than 75 peer-reviewed papers in international journals. His papers have been cited more than 3000 times and H-index was 30. He has been invited to visit dozens of universities or institutes around the world. He has been convener, chair and invited speaker at dozens of workshops and conferences including AMS, AGU, AOGS and EGU. He is a co-chair of international working group for Global Monsoons Modeling Inter-comparison Project and director of international Workshop on Uncertainty Quantification in Climate Modeling and Projection. He is a contributing author of IPCC report, and guest professor of Nanjing University and Chinese Academy of Sciences. He served at NASA and DOE review panels and reviewed articles for more than 30 international scientific journals. He serves as editor for "Advances in Atmospheric Sciences" and "Journal of Ocean University of China".
- Regional and global climate modeling
- Aerosol-climate interaction
- Snow and glacier impurities and climatic impacts
- Water-land-atmosphere interactions
- Uncertainty Quantification in climate modeling
Education and Credentials
- Ph.D., Atmospheric Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
- M.S., Atmospheric Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
- B.S., Atmospheric Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
Affiliations and Professional Service
- American Meteorological Society
- American Geophysical Union
- European Geosciences Union
Awards and Recognitions
- PNNL Outstanding Performance Award, 2011
- PNNL Exceptional Contribution Program Award, 2012
- Contributing Author of IPCC AR5
- Guest Professor of Nanjing University, China, 2011-
- Guest Professor of Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2010-.
- Editor of Journal "Advances in Atmospheric Sciences"
- Editor of "Journal of Ocean University of China".
- Fellowship Award of International Council for Science (ICSU), 1997
- Xue-Du-Feng-Zheng Excellent Paper Award in Atmospheric Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1998
- Gao Y, LYR Leung, J Lu, Y Liu, M Huang, and Y Qian. 2014. "Robust Spring Drying in the Southwestern U.S. and Seasonal Migration of Wet/Dry Patterns in a Warmer Climate ." Geophysical Research Letters 41:1745-1751. doi:10.1002/2014GL059562
- Qian Y, H Wang, R Zhang, MG Flanner, and PJ Rasch. 2014. "A Sensitivity Study on Modeling Black Carbon in Snow and its Radiative Forcing over the Arctic and Northern China." Environmental Research Letters 9(6):Article No. 064001. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/6/064001
- Wan H, PJ Rasch, K Zhang, Y Qian, H Yan, and C Zhao. 2014. "Short ensembles: An Efficient Method for Discerning Climate-relevant Sensitivities in Atmospheric General Circulation Models." Geoscientific Model Development 7(5):1961-1977. doi:10.5194/gmd-7-1961-2014
- Chen S, C Zhao, Y Qian, LYR Leung, J Huang, Z Huang, J Bi, W Zhang, J Shi, L Yang, D Li, and J Li. 2014. "Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem." Aeolian Research 15:15-30. doi:10.1016/j.aeolia.2014.02.001
- Chen S, J Huang, Y Qian, J Ge, and J Su. 2014. "Effects of Aerosols on Autumn Precipitation over Mid-Eastern China." Journal of Tropical Meteorology 20(3):242-250.
- Gong D, W Wang, Y Qian, W Bai, Y Guo, and R Mao. 2014. "Observed Holiday Aerosol Reduction and Temperature Cooling over East Asia." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119(11):6306-6324. doi:10.1002/2014JD021464
- Guo Z, M Wang, Y Qian, VE Larson, SJ Ghan, M Ovchinnikov, P Bogenschutz, C Zhao, G Lin, and T Zhou. 2014. "A Sensitivity Analysis of Cloud Properties to CLUBB Parameters in the Single-Column Community Atmosphere Model (SCAM5)." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 6(3):829-858. doi:10.1002/2014MS000315
- Lin R, T Zhou, and Y Qian. 2014. "Evaluation of Global Monsoon Precipitation Changes based on Five Reanalysis Datasets." Journal of Climate 27(3):1271-1289. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00215.1
- Song F, T Zhou, and Y Qian. 2014. "Responses of East Asian Summer Monsoon to Natural and Anthropogenic Forcings in the 17 Latest CMIP5 Models." Geophysical Research Letters 41(2):596-603. doi:10.1002/2013GL058705
- Wang H, PJ Rasch, RC Easter, Jr, B Singh, R Zhang, PL Ma, Y Qian, SJ Ghan, and N Beagley. 2014. "Using an Explicit Emission Tagging Method in Global Modeling of Source-Receptor Relationships for Black Carbon in the Arctic: Variations, Sources and Transport Pathways." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119(12):12,888-12,909. doi:10.1002/2014JD022297
- Yan H, Y Qian, G Lin, LYR Leung, B Yang, and Q Fu. 2014. "Parametric Sensitivity and Calibration for Kain-Fritsch Convective Parameterization Scheme in the WRF Model ." Climate Research 59(2):135-147. doi:10.3354/cr01213
- Zhao C, Z Hu, Y Qian, LYR Leung, J Huang, M Huang, J Jin, MG Flanner, R Zhang, H Wang, H Yan, Z Lu, and DG Streets. 2014. "Simulating Black Carbon and Dust and their Radiative Forcing in Seasonal Snow: A Case Study over North China with Field Campaign Measurements." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14(20):11475-11491. doi:10.5194/acp-14-11475-2014
- Zou L, Y Qian, T Zhou, and B Yang. 2014. "Parameter Tuning and Calibration of RegCM3 with MIT-Emanuel Cumulus Parameterization Scheme over CORDEX East Asian Domain." Journal of Climate 27(20):7687-7701. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00229.1
- Qian Y, M Huang, B Yang, and LK Berg. 2013. "A Modeling Study of Irrigation Effects on Surface Fluxes and Land-Air-Cloud Interactions in the Southern Great Plains." Journal of Hydrometeorology 14(3):700-721. doi:10.1175/JHM-D-12-0134.1
- Chen S, J Huang, C Zhao, Y Qian, LYR Leung, and B Yang. 2013. "Modeling the Transport and Radiative Forcing of Taklimakan Dust over the Tibetan Plateau: A case study in the summer of 2006." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(2):797-812.
- Mearns LO, M Bukovsky, LYR Leung, Y Qian, R Arritt, W Gutowski, ES Takle, S Biner, D Caya, J Correia Jr., R Jones, L Sloan, and MA Snyder. 2013. "Reply to "Comments on 'The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview of Phase I Results'"." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94(7):1077-1078. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00013.1
- Wang H, RC Easter, Jr, PJ Rasch, M Wang, X Liu, SJ Ghan, Y Qian, JH Yoon, PL Ma, and V Vinoj. 2013. "Sensitivity of Remote Aerosol Distributions to Representation of Cloud-Aerosol Interactions in a Global Climate Model." Geoscientific Model Development 6(3):765-782. doi:10.5194/gmd-6-765-2013
- Yang B, Y Qian, G Lin, LYR Leung, PJ Rasch, GJ Zhang, SA McFarlane, C Zhao, Y Zhang, H Wang, M Wang, and X Liu. 2013. "Uncertainty Quantification and Parameter Tuning in the CAM5 Zhang-McFarlane Convection Scheme and Impact of Improved Convection on the Global Circulation and Climate." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(2):395-415. doi:10.1029/2012JD018213
- Zhao C, S Chen, LYR Leung, Y Qian, J Kok, RA Zaveri, and J Huang. 2013. "Uncertainty in Modeling Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing from Size Parameterization." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13:10733-10753. doi:10.5194/acp-13-10733-2013
- Zhao C, X Liu, Y Qian, JH Yoon, Z Hou, G Lin, SA McFarlane, H Wang, B Yang, PL Ma, H Yan, and J Bao. 2013. "A Sensitivity Study of Radiative Fluxes at the Top of Atmosphere to Cloud-Microphysics and Aerosol Parameters in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13:10969-10987. doi:10.5194/acp-13-10969-2013
- Fan J, LYR Leung, Z Li, H Morrison, H Chen, Y Zhou, Y Qian, and Y Wang. 2012. "Aerosol Impacts on Clouds and Precipitation in Eastern China: Results from Bin and Bulk Microphysics." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 117:Article No. D00K36. doi:10.1029/2011JD016537
- Mearns LO, R Arritt, S Biner, M Bukovsky, S McGinnis, S Sain, D Caya, J Correia Jr., D Flory, W Gutowski, G Takle, R Jones, LYR Leung, W Moufouma-Okia, L McDaniel, A Nunes, Y Qian, J Roads, L Sloan, and MA Snyder. 2012. "The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview of Phase I Results." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 93(9):1337-1362. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00223.1
- Qian Y, CN Long, H Wang, JM Comstock, SA McFarlane, and S Xie. 2012. "Evaluation of cloud fraction and its radiative effect simulated by IPCC AR4 global models against ARM surface observations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12(4):1785-1810. doi:10.5194/acp-12-1785-2012
- Wang M, SJ Ghan, X Liu, TL Ecuyer, K Zhang, H Morrison, M Ovchinnikov, RC Easter, Jr, R Marchand, D Chand, Y Qian, and JE Penner. 2012. "Constraining cloud lifetime effects of aerosols using A-Train satellite observations ." Geophysical Research Letters 39:L15709. doi:10.1029/2012GL052204
- Yang B, Y Qian, G Lin, LYR Leung, and Y Zhang. 2012. "Some Issues in Uncertainty Quantification and Parameter Tuning: A Case Study of Convective Parameterization Scheme in the WRF Regional Climate Model." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12(5):2409-2427. doi:10.5194/acp-12-2409-2012
- Yang B, Y Zhang, and Y Qian. 2012. "Simulation of Urban Climate with High-Resolution WRF Model: A Case Study in Nanjing, China." Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 48(3):227-241. doi:10.1007/s13143-012-0023-5
- Zhang Y, Y Qian, V Duliere, E Salathe, and LYR Leung. 2012. "ENSO anomalies over the Western United States: present and future patterns in regional climate simulations." Climatic Change 110(1):315-346. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0088-7
- Gustafson WI, Jr, Y Qian, and JD Fast. 2011. "Downscaling Aerosols and the Impact of Neglected Subgrid Processes on Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing for a Representative Global Climate Model Grid Spacing." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 116:Article No. D13303. doi:10.1029/2010JD015480
- Li Z, C Li, H Chen, SC Tsay, BN Holben, J Huang, B Li, H Maring, Y Qian, G Shi, X Xia, Y Yin, Y Zheng, and G Zhuang. 2011. "East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC): An Overview." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 116:Article No. D00K34. doi:10.1029/2010JD015257
- Qian Y, MG Flanner, LYR Leung, and W Wang. 2011. "Sensitivity studies on the impacts of Tibetan Plateau snowpack pollution on the Asian hydrological cycle and monsoon climate." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11(5):1929-1948. doi:10.5194/acp-11-1929-2011
- Wang M, SJ Ghan, M Ovchinnikov, X Liu, RC Easter, Jr, EI Kassianov, Y Qian, and H Morrison. 2011. "Aerosol Indirect effects in a multi-scale aerosol-climate model PNNL-MMF." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11(11):5431-5455. doi:10.5194/acp-11-5431-2011
- Wang M, SJ Ghan, RC Easter, Jr, M Ovchinnikov, X Liu, EI Kassianov, Y Qian, WI Gustafson, Jr, VE Larson, D Schanen, M Khairoutdinov, and H Morrison. 2011. "The multi-scale aerosol-climate model PNNL-MMF: model description and evaluation." Geoscientific Model Development 4(1):137-168. doi:10.5194/gmd-4-137-2011
- Qian Y, D Gong, and LYR Leung. 2010. "Light rain events change over North America, Europe and Asia for 1973-2009." Atmospheric Science Letters 11(4):301-306. doi:10.1002/asl.298
- Qian Y, WI Gustafson, Jr, and JD Fast. 2010. "An investigation of the sub-grid variability of trace gases and aerosols for global climate modeling." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10:6917-6946. doi:10.5194/acp-10-6917-2010
- Chung CE, V Ramanathan, G Carmichael, S Kulkarni, Y Tang, B Adhikary, LYR Leung, and Y Qian. 2010. "Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in Asia Derived From Regional Models With Atmospheric and Aerosol Data Assimilation." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10(13):6007-6024. doi:10.5194/acp-10-6007-2010
- Gutowski W, R Arritt, S Kawazoe, D Flory, ES Takle, S Biner, D Caya, R Jones, R Laprise, LYR Leung, LO Mearns, W Moufouma-Okia, A Nunes, Y Qian, JO Roads, L Sloan, and MA Snyder. 2010. "Regional Extreme Monthly Precipitation Simulated by NARCCAP RCMs." Journal of Hydrometeorology 11(6):1373-1379. doi:10.1175/2010JHM1297.1
- Leung LYR, M Huang, Y Qian, and X Liang. 2010. "Climate-Soil-Vegetation Control on Groundwater Table Dynamics and its Feedbacks in a Climate Model." Climate Dynamics 36(1-2):57-81. doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0746-x
- Salathe E, LYR Leung, Y Qian, and Y Zhang. 2010. "Regional Climate Model Projections for the State of Washington." Climatic Change 102(1-2):51-75. doi:10.1007/s10584-010-9849-y
- Qian Y, SJ Ghan, and LR Leung. 2009. "Downscaling hydroclimatic changes over the Western U.S. Based on CAM subgrid scheme and WRF regional climate simulations." International Journal of Climatology 30(5):675-693. doi:10.1002/joc.1928
- Qian Y, WI Gustafson, Jr, LYR Leung, and SJ Ghan. 2009. "Effects of soot-induced snow albedo change on snowpack and hydrological cycle in western United States based on Weather Research and Forecasting chemistry and regional climate simulations." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114:D03108. doi:10.1029/2008JD011039
- Leung LR, and Y Qian. 2009. "Atmospheric Rivers Induced Heavy Precipitation and Flooding in the Western U.S. Simulated by the WRF Regional Climate Model." Geophysical Research Letters 36:Article number: L03820. doi:10.1029/2008GL036445
- Mearns LO, W Gutowski, R Jones, LYR Leung, S McGinnis, A Nunes, and Y Qian. 2009. "A Regional Climate Change Assessment Program for North America." Eos 90(36):,
- Qian Y, D Gong, J Fan, LR Leung, R Bennartz, D Chen, and W Wang. 2009. "Heavy pollution suppresses light rain in China: observations and modeling." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114:article number D00K02. doi:10.1029/2008JD011575
- Zhang Y, R Fu, H Yu, Y Qian, R Dickinson, MAF Silva Dias, PL da Silva Dias, and K Fernandes. 2009. "Impact of biomass burning aerosol on the monsoon circulation transition over Amazonia." Geophysical Research Letters 36(L10814):, doi:10.1029/2009GL037180
- Zhu C, LR Leung, D Gochis, Y Qian, and DP Lettenmaier. 2009. "Evaluating the influence of antecedent soil moisture on variability of the North American Monsoon precipitation in the coupled MM5/VIC modeling system." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 1:Art. # 13, 22 pp. doi:10.3894/JAMES.2009.1.13
- Qian Y, Q Song, S Menon, S Yu, SC Liu, G Shi, LR Leung, and Y Luo. 2008. "Climate Impacts of Atmospheric Sulfate and Black Carbon Aerosols." In Changes In The Human-Monsoon System Of East Asia In The Context Of Global Change, ed. C Fu, JR Freney. JWB Stewart, pp. 115-132. World Scientific Publishing Company, Imperial College Press, Hackensack, NJ.
- Adhikary B, Kulkarni, A Dallura, Y Tang, T Chai, LR Leung, Y Qian, CE Chung, V Ramanathan, and G Carmichael. 2008. "A regional scale chemical transport modeling of Asian aerosols with data assimilation of AOD observations using optimal interpolation technique." Atmospheric Environment 42(37):8600-8615. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.08.031
- Qian Y, and LR Leung. 2007. "A Long-term Regional Simulation and Observations of the Hydroclimate in China." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 112:, doi:10.1029/2006JD008134
- Adhikary B, G Carmichael, Y Tang, LR Leung, Y Qian, JJ Schauer, EA Stone, V Ramanathan, and MV Ramana. 2007. "Characterization of the seasonal cycle of south Asian aerosols: A Regional-Scale Modeling Analysis. ." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 112(D22):D22S22 (22 pages). doi:10.1029/2006JD008143
- Gong D, CH Ho, D Chen, Y Qian, YS Choi, and J Kim. 2007. "Weekly cycle of aerosol-meteorology interaction over China." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 112(D22):Art. No. D22202.
- Qian Y, W Wang, LR Leung, and DP Kaiser. 2007. "Variability of Solar Radiation under Cloud-Free Skies in China: The Role of Aerosols." Geophysical Research Letters 34:Art. No. L12804. doi:10.1029/2006GL028800
- Qian Y, DP Kaiser, LR Leung, and M Xu. 2006. "More Frequent Cloud-Free Sky and Less Surface Solar Radiation in China from 1955 to 2000." Geophysical Research Letters 33(1):L01812, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024586.
- Leung LR, and Y Qian. 2005. "Downscaling Extended Weather Forecasts for Hydrologic Prediction." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 86(3):332-333.
- Leung LR, and Y Qian. 2005. "Hydrologic Response to Climate Variability, Climate Change, and Climate Extreme in the U.S.: Climate Model Evaluation and Projections." In Regional Hydrological Impacts of Climate Change - Impact Assessment and Decision Making, IAHS Publication 295, ed. T. Wagener, et al., pp. 37-44. IAHS Press, Wallingford, Oxfordshire.
- Zhao Z, LR Leung, and Y Qian. 2005. "Characteristics of Diurnal Variations of Rainfall in China for the Recent Years." Exchanges : newsletter of the Climate Variability and Predictability Programme (CLIVAR) 10(3):24-26.
- Leung LR, Y Qian, X Bian, WM Washington, J Han, and JO Roads. 2004. "Mid-Century Ensemble Regional Climate Change Scenarios for the Western United States." Climatic Change 62(1-3):75-113.
- Leung LR, S Zhong, Y Qian, and Y Liu. 2004. "Evaluation of Regional Climate Simulations of the 1998 and 1999 East Asian Summer Monsoon Using the GAME/HUBEX Observational Data." Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan 82(6):1695-1713.
- Qian Y, LR Leung, SJ Ghan, and F Giorgi. 2003. "Regional Climate Effects of Aerosols Over China: Modeling and Observation." Tellus Series B, Chemical and Physical Meteorology 55(4):914-934.
- Giorgi F, X Bi, and Y Qian. 2003. "Indirect vs. Direct Effects of Anthropogenic Sulfate on the Climate of East Asia as Simulated with a Regional Coupled Climate-Chemistry/Aerosol Model." Climatic Change 58(3):345-376.
- Leung LR, Y Qian, and X Bian. 2003. "Hydroclimate of the Western United States Based on Observations and Regional Climate Simulations of 1981-2000. Part I: Seasonal Statistics." Journal of Climate 16(12):1892-1911.
- Leung LR, Y Qian, J Han, and JO Roads. 2003. "Intercomparison of Global Reanalyses and Regional Simulations of Cold Season Water Budgets in the Western United States." Journal of Hydrometeorology 4(6):1067-1087.
- Leung LR, Y Qian, X Bian, and AG Hunt. 2003. "Hydroclimate of the Western United States Based on Observations and Regional Climate Simulations of 1981-2000. Part II: Mesoscale ENSO Anomalies." Journal of Climate 16(12):1912-1928.
- Leung LR, and Y Qian. 2003. "Changes in Seasonal and Extreme Hydrologic Conditions of the Georgia Basin/Puget Sound in an Ensemble Regional Climate Simulation for the Mid-Century." Canadian Water Resources Journal 28(4):605-631.
- Leung LR, and Y Qian. 2003. "The Sensitivity of Precipitation and Snowpack Simulations to Model Resolution via Nesting in Regions of Complex Terrain." Journal of Hydrometeorology 4(6):1025-1043.
- Giorgi F, X Bi, and Y Qian. 2002. "Direct Radiative Forcing and Regional Climatic Effects of Anthropogenic Aerosols Over East Asia: A Regional Coupled Climate-Chemistry/Aerosol Model Study." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 107(D20):art.no.4439.
- Kaiser DP, and Y Qian. 2002. "Decreasing Trends in Sunshine Duration Over China for 1954-1998: Indication of Increased Haze Pollution?" Geophysical Research Letters 29(21):2042. doi:10.1029/2002/GL016057
- Leung LR, X Bian, and Y Qian. 2002. "Long-Term Regional Climate Simulations Driven by Two Global Reanalyses and a GCM for the Western United States." In 4th International Scientific Conference on Global Energy and Water Cycle, 13th Symposium on Global Change and Climate Variations, pp. 65-67. American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA.
- Qian Y, F Giorgi, Y Huang, WL Chameides, and C Luo. 2001. "Regional Simulation of Anthropogenic Sulfur over East Asia and its Sensitivity to Model Parameters." TelluS B 53(2):171-191. DOI:10.1034/j.1600-0889.2001.d01-14.x.
- Qian Y and F Giorgi. 2000. "Regional Climatic Effects of Anthropogenic Aerosols? The Case of Southwestern China." Geophysical Research Letters 27(21):3521-352. DOI:10.1029/2000GL011942.
- Qian Y and F Giorgi. 1999. "Interactive Coupling of Regional Climate and Sulfate Aerosol Models Over East Asia." Journal of Geophysical Research 104:6477-6499.
- Qian Y, HQ Wang, CB Fu, and ZF Wang. 1998. "Seasonal and Spatial Variations of Radiative Forcing of Anthropogenic Sulfate Aerosol Over East Asia." Advances in Atmospheric Sciences 15(3):380-392.
- Qian Y and YF Qian. 1995. "Sensitivity Experiments on Influences of Uplift of Tibetan Plateau on the General Circulation in Summer." ACTA Meteorologica Sinica 9(3):267-277.
- Qian YF, Y. Qian, and QQ Wang. 1994. "Numerical Modeling of Properties of the Summer Quasi-Stationary Circulation Systems and their Monthly Variations." Advances in Atmospheric Sciences 11(4): 399-407.