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Tim

Tim Johnson

Chemical Physics & Analysis
Scientist
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K3-61
Richland, WA 99352

Biography

Dr. Tim Johnson is a physical chemist specializing in spectroscopy in the THz, infrared, near-IR and UV-vis domains. Work includes transmission, reflectance and other spectroscopic methods for gases, liquids and solids. Tim was a member of a team involved in building the Northwest Infrared Database, a quantitative vapor-phase infrared spectral library used for a multitude of purposes, including environmental monitoring, hazardous material response, biomass burning and general research. He also is part of several collaborative efforts for applied and basic science involving fundamental spectroscopy, both infrared and Raman, and is working to develop sensors and methods, both Fourier transform infrared spectrometer-based and laser-based systems for atmospheric chemical sensing as well as for security purposes. He also has significant experience in UV-visible spectroscopies including absorbance, reflectance and cryogenic techniques.

Before joining Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Dr. Johnson conducted atmospheric chemistry research at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany, and worked as an FTIR applications and development scientist at Bruker Optics. He also served as a senior research scientist in sensor development for atmospheric chemistry at York University in Toronto, using matrix isolation FTIR, intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy, and infrared diode laser spectroscopy.

Research Interests

  • Atmospheric Chemistry - Fate and Transport
  • Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
  • Spectral Signatures - Solids, liquids, pollutants, WMD etc.
  • Remote (Laser) Sensing of Toxins/Pollutants
  • Step-scan FTIR Time-Resolved Spectroscopy

Education and Credentials

  • Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany, 1988-1992
  • Ph.D., Chemical Physics Program (Spectroscopy), Washington State University, 1987
  • B.A., Chemistry (with distinction), cum laude, Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota, 1981

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Member, Optical Society of America
  • Member, American Geophysical Union, Atmospheric Division

Awards and Recognitions

  • Phi Kappa Phi National Honor Society (1987 - present)
  • National Need/Fabrication/Field Test Short Wave Infrared Spectrograph (2000)
  • Certificate of Achievement, Pre-service Teacher Program (2001)
  • Max Planck Society Honorary Fellowship (1988-1990)
  • Washington State University Graduate School Summer Fellowship (1985)
  • Distinction in Senior Integrative Exercises, Chemistry Department, Carleton College (1981)

PNNL Publications

2014

  • Akagi S, IR Burling, A Mendoza, TJ Johnson, M Cameron, DWT Griffith, C Paton-Walsh, D Weise, J Reardon, and RJ Yokelson. 2014. "Field measurements of trace gases emitted by prescribed fires in southeastern U.S. pine forests using an open-path FTIR system." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14(1):199-215.  doi:10.5194/acp-14-199-2014
  • Akagi S, RJ Yokelson, IR Burling, D Weise, J Reardon, S Urbanski, and TJ Johnson. 2014. "First Look at Smoke Emissions from Prescribed Burns in Long-unburned Longleaf Pine Forests." In Proceedings of 4th Fire Behavior and Fuels Conference, February 18-22, 2013, Raleigh, North Carolina and July 1-4, 2013, St. Petersburg, Russia, ed. DD Wade and RL Fox, pp. 23-25.  International Association of Wildland Fire, Missoula, MT. 

2013

  • Akagi S, RJ Yokelson, IR Burling, S Meinardi, I Simpson, DR Blake, G McMeeking, A Sullivan, T Lee, S Kredenweis, S Urbanski, J Reardon, DWT Griffith, TJ Johnson, and D Weise. 2013. "Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13(3):1141-1165.  doi:10.5194/acp-13-1141-2013
  • Bernacki BE, RL Redding, YF Su, CS Brauer, and TJ Johnson. 2013. "Intensity offset and correction of solid spectral library samples measured behind glass." In Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery XIX,m April 29, 2013, Baltimore, Maryland. Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 87431, ed. SS Shen and PE Lewis, p. Article No. 87431L.  SPIE, Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.2014523
  • Hosseini SE, S Urbanski, P Dixit, L Qi, IR Burling, R Yokelson, TJ Johnson, MKB Shrivastava, H Jung, D Weise, JW Miller, and DR Cocker. 2013. "Laboratory characterization of PM emissions from combustion of wildland biomass fuels." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(17):9914-9929.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50481
  • Johnson TJ, RL Sams, LT Profeta, S Akagi, IR Burling, RJ Yokelson, and SD Williams. 2013. "Quantitative IR Spectrum and Vibrational Assignments for Glycolaldehyde Vapor: Glycolaldehyde Measurements in Biomass Burning Plumes." Journal of Physical Chemistry A 117(20):4096-4107.  doi:/10.1021/jp311945p
  • Johnson TJ, D Weise, EN Lincoln, RL Sams, M Cameron, P Veres, RJ Yokelson, S Urbanski, LT Profeta, S Williams, J Gilman, WC Kuster, S Akagi, CE Stockwell, A Mendoza, CE Wold, C Warneke, JA de Gouw, IR Burling, J Reardon, MD Schneider, DWT Griffith, and JM Roberts. 2013. Final Report for SERDP Project RC-1649: Advanced Chemical Measurements of Smoke from DoD-prescribed BurnsPNNL-23025, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Sweet LE, TA Blake, CH Henager, Jr, SY Hu, TJ Johnson, DE Meier, SM Peper, and JM Schwantes. 2013. "Investigation of the Polymorphs and Hydrolysis of Uranium Trioxide." Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 296(1):105-110.  doi:10.1007/s10967-012-2063-9
  • Sweet LE, DD Reilly, DG Abrecht, EC Buck, DE Meier, YF Su, CS Brauer, JM Schwantes, RG Tonkyn, JE Szecsody, TA Blake, and TJ Johnson. 2013. "Spectroscopic Studies of the Several Isomers of UO3." In Optics and Photonics for Counterterrorism, Crime Fighting and Defence IX; and Optical Materials and Biomaterials in Security and Defence Systems Technology X, September 23, 2013, Dresden, Germany. Proceedings of the SPIE , vol. 8901, ed. R Zamboni, et al, p. Paper No. 890107.  SPIE, Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.2029408
  • Weatherall J, JB Barber, CS Brauer, TJ Johnson, YF Su, CD Ball, B Smith, R Cox, R Steinke, P McDaniel, and L Wasserzug. 2013. "Adapting Raman Spectra from Laboratory Spectrometers to Portable Detection Libraries." Applied Spectroscopy 67(2):149-157. 
  • Williams SD, TJ Johnson, SW Sharpe, V Yavelak, RP Oats, and CS Brauer. 2013. "Quantitative Vapor-phase IR Intensities and DFT Computations to Predict Absolute IR Spectra based on Molecular Structure: I. Alkanes." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 129:298-307.  doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.07.005
  • Yokelson RJ, IR Burling, J Gilman, C Warneke, CE Stockwell, JA de Gouw, S Akagi, S Urbanski, P Veres, JM Roberts, WC Kuster, J Reardon, DWT Griffith, TJ Johnson, SE Hosseini, JW Miller, DR Cocker, H Jung, and D Weise. 2013. "Coupling field and laboratory measurements to estimate the emission factors of identified and unidentified trace gases for prescribed fires." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13(1):89-116.  doi:10.5194/acp-13-89-2013

2012

  • Johnson TJ, YF Su, KH Jarman, BM Kunkel, JC Birnbaum, AG Joly, EG Stephan, RG Tonkyn, RG Ewing, and GC Dunham. 2012. "Demonstrated Wavelength Portability of Raman Reference Data for Explosives and Chemical Detection." International Journal of Spectroscopy 2012:Article No. 297056.  doi:10.1155/2012/297056
  • Kelly JF, TA Blake, BE Bernacki, and TJ Johnson. 2012. "Design Considerations for a Portable Raman Probe Spectrometer for Field Forensics." International Journal of Spectroscopy 2012:Article No. 938407.  doi:10.1155/2012/938407
  • Phillips MC, JD Suter, BE Bernacki, and TJ Johnson. 2012. "Challenges of infrared reflective spectroscopy of solid-phase explosives and chemicals on surfaces." In Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) Sensing XIII, April 23, 2012, Baltimore, Maryland. Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 8358, ed. AW Fountain III, p. Paper No. 83580T.  SPIE , Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.919477
  • Sweet LE, EC Buck, CH Henager, Jr, SY Hu, DE Meier, SM Peper, JM Schwantes, YF Su, RL Sams, TA Blake, TJ Johnson, TJ Kulp, RL Sommers, JD Sugar, and JD Chames. 2012. "Investigations into the Polymorphs and Hydration Products of UO3." In Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) Sensing XIII, April 24, 2012, Baltimore, Maryland. Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 8358, ed. AW Fountain III, p. Article No. 83581R.  SPIE, Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.919706

2011

  • Bernacki BE, NC Anheier, Jr, A Mendoza, BG Fritz, and TJ Johnson. 2011. "Visible/Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Sensing of Solids under Controlled Environmental Conditions." In Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) Sensing XII, April 26, 2011, Orlando, Florida. Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 8018, ed. AW Fountain III and PJ Garnder, p. Article No. 80180K.  SPIE , Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.884031
  • Burling I, RJ Yokelson, S Akagi, S Urbanski, CE Wold, DWT Griffith, TJ Johnson, J Reardon, and D Weise. 2011. "Airborne and ground-based measurements of the trace gases and particles emitted from prescribed fires in the United States ." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11(23):12197-12216.  doi:10.5194/acp-11-12197-2011
  • Chang-Graham AL, LT Profeta, TJ Johnson, RJ Yokelson, A Laskin, and J Laskin. 2011. "Case Study of Water-Soluble Metal Containing Organic Constituents of Biomass Burning Aerosol." Environmental Science & Technology 45(4):1257-1263.  doi:10.1021/es103010j
  • Kunkel BM, YF Su, RG Tonkyn, EG Stephan, AG Joly, JC Birnbaum, KH Jarman, and TJ Johnson. 2011. "Raman Database Considerations for Near-Infrared Systems." In Optics and Photonics for Counterterrorism and Crime Fighting VIII, September 19, 2011, Prague, Czech Republic. Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 8189, ed. R Zamboni, et al, p. Article No. 818905.  SPIE, Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.898368
  • Profeta LT, RL Sams, TJ Johnson, and SD Williams. 2011. "Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal, Methylglyoxal, and 2,3-Butanedione (Diacetyl) with Vibrational Assignments." Journal of Physical Chemistry A 115(35):9886-9900.  doi:10.1021/jp204532x
  • Schneider MD, NB Valentine, and TJ Johnson. 2011. "Infrared Signatures to Discriminate Viability of Autoclaved Bacillus Spores." In Optics and Photonics for Counterterrorism and Crime Fighting VII; Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology VIII; and Quantum-Physics-based Information Security, September 19, 2011, Prague, Czech Republic. Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 8189, ed. R Zamboni, et al, p. Article No. 818908.  SPIE, Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.897944
  • Sweet LE, CH Henager, Jr, SY Hu, TJ Johnson, DE Meier, SM Peper, and JM Schwantes. 2011. Investigation of Uranium PolymorphsPNNL-20951, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 

2010

  • Johnson TJ, SD Williams, NB Valentine, and YF Su. 2010. "The hydration number n of calcium dipicolinate trihydrate, CaDP center dot nH(2)O, and its effect on the IR spectra of sporulated Bacillus bacteria ." Vibrational Spectroscopy 53(1,Sp.Iss.SI):28-33. 
  • Bernacki BE, TA Blake, A Mendoza, and TJ Johnson. 2010. "Visible Hyperspectral Imaging for Standoff Detection of Explosives on Surfaces ." In Optics and Photonics for Counterterrorism and Crime Fighting VI and Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology VII: Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 7838, ed. C Lewis, D Burgess, R Zamboni, F Kajzar and EM Heckman, p. Paper No. 78380C.  SPIE , Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.870739
  • Burling I, RJ Yokelson, DWT Griffith, TJ Johnson, P Veres, J Roberts, C Warneke, S Urbanski, J Reardon, D Weise, WM Hao, and J Gouw. 2010. "Laboratory measurements of trace gas emissions from biomass burning of fuel types from the southeastern and southwestern United States." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10(22):11115-11130.  doi:10.5194/acp-10-11115-2010
  • Johnson TJ, LTM Profeta, RL Sams, DWT Griffith, and RL Yokelson. 2010. "An Infrared Spectral Database for Detection of Gases Emitted by Biomass Burning." Vibrational Spectroscopy 53(1):97-102.  doi:10.1016/j.vibspec.2010.02.010
  • Johnson TJ, TA Blake, RL Sams, and SD Burton. 2010. "Absolute Infrared Cross Sections of Gas-Phase H2O2 Using Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy ." In Fourier Transform Spectrometry, OSA Technical Digest, April 26-30, 2009, Vancouver, BC, Canada, p. Paper No. FWA6.  Optical Society of America, Washington DC. 
  • Li G, DM Camaioni, JE Amonette, ZC Zhang, TJ Johnson, and JL Fulton. 2010. "[CuCln](2-n) Ion-Pair Species in 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride Ionic Liquid-Water Mixtures: Ultraviolet-Visible, X-ray Absorbtion Fine Structure, and Density Functional Theory Characterization ." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 114(39):12614-12622.  doi:10.1021/jp106762b
  • Lincoln E, WM Hao, S Baker, RJ Yokelson, IR Burling, S Urbanski, JW Miller, D Weise, and TJ Johnson. 2010. "A Prescribed Fire Emission Factors Database for Land Management and Air Quality Applications." In American Geophysical Union. Fall Meeting, December 13-17, 2010, San Francisco, California, pp. Paper No. A21B-0037.  American Geophysical Union, Washington DC. 
  • Roberts JM, P Veres, C Warneke, A Neuman, R Washenfelder, S Brown, M Baasandroj, J Burkholder, I Burling, TJ Johnson, RL Yokelson, and JA de Gouw. 2010. "Measurement of HONO, HNCO, and Other Inorganic Acids by Negative-ion Proton-Transfer Chemical-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (NI-PT-CIMS):Application to Biomass Burning Emissions." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 3(4):981-990.  doi:10.5194/amt-3-981-2010

2009

  • Blake TA, JF Kelly, NB Gallagher, PL Gassman, and TJ Johnson. 2009. "Passive Standoff Detection of RDX Residues on Metal Surfaces via Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging." Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 395(2):337-348. 
  • Johnson TJ, SD Williams, NB Valentine, and YF Su. 2009. "The Infrared Spectra of Bacillus Bacteria Part II: Sporulated Bacillus-the Effect of Vegetative Cells and Contributions of Calcium Dipicolinate Trihydrate, CaDP·3H2O ." Applied Spectroscopy 63(8):908-915. 
  • Johnson TJ, SD Williams, NB Valentine, YF Su, HW Kreuzer-Martin, KL Wahl, and JB Forrester. 2009. "Infrared Signatures of Bacillus Bacteria: Clear IR Distinctions Between Sporulated and Vegetative Cells with Chemical Assighments." In Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) Sensing X , vol. 7304, ed. AW Fountain III and PJ Gardner, p. Article No.: 730407.  SPIE, Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.823178
  • Johnson TJ, SD Williams, NB Valentine, YF Su, HW Kreuzer-Martin, KL Wahl, and JB Forrester. 2009. "Infrared signatures of Bacillus bacteria: Clear IR distinctions between sporulated and vegetative cells with chemical assignments." In Proceedings of SPIE: Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosives (CBRNE) Sensing X, vol. 7304, ed. AW Fountain, III and PJ Gardner, p. Paper No. 730407.  SPIE , Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.823178
  • Forrester JB, NB Valentine, YF Su, and TJ Johnson. 2009. "Chemometric Analysis of Multiple Species of Bacillus Bacterial Endospores Using Infrared Spectroscopy: Discrimination to the Strain Level ." Analytica Chimica Acta 651(1):24-30. 
  • Johnson TJ, RL Sams, SD Burton, and TA Blake. 2009. "Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide (H202) in the mid-infrared at atmospheric pressure." Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 395(2):377-386.  doi:10.1007/s00216-009-2805-x
  • Johnson TJ, YF Su, NB Valentine, HW Kreuzer-Martin, KL Wahl, SD Williams, BH Clowers, and DS Wunschel. 2009. "The Infrared Spectra of Bacillus Bacteria Part I: Vegetative Bacillus versus Sporulated Cells and the Contributions of Phospholipids to Vegetative Infrared Spectra ." Applied Spectroscopy 63(8):899-907. 
  • Kips R, MJ Kristo, I Hutcheon, JE Amonette, Z Wang, TJ Johnson, DC Gerlach, and KB Olsen. 2009. "Determination of the Relative Amount of Fluorine in Uranium Oxyfluoride Particles Using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Optical Spectroscopy." In Proceeding of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management.  Institute of Nuclear Materials Management, Deerfield, IL. 

2008

  • Sharpe SW, TJ Johnson, RL Sams, JL Hylden, J Kleimeyer, and B Rowland. 2008. "INFRARED SPECTRAL SIGNATURES: CREATION OF REFERENCE DATA FOR VAPORS AND LIQUIDS." International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems 18(2):231-250.  doi:10.1142/S012915640800531X

2007

  • Aker PM, TJ Johnson, RM Williams, and NB Valentine. 2007. Feasibility Study of Using Short Wave Infrared Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (SWIR-CRDS) for Biological Agent DetectionPNNL-16595, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Johnson TJ, NB Valentine, PL Gassman, DA Atkinson, SW Sharpe, and SD Williams. 2007. "On the Relative Utility of Infrared (IR) versus Terahertz (THz) for Optical Sensors." In Chemical and Biological Sensors for Industrial and Environmental Monitoring III, Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 6756, ed. KJ Ewing, et al. , pp. 1-7.  SPIE , Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.754009
  • Valentine NB, TJ Johnson, YF Su, and JB Forrester. 2007. "Rapid Bacterial Identification Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy." SPIE Newsroom doi:10.1117/2.1200701.0559
  • Williams SD, TJ Johnson, T Gibbons, and CL Kitchens. 2007. "Relative Raman Intensities in C6H6, C6D6, and C6F6: A Comparison of Different Computational Methods." Theoretical Chemistry Accounts 117(2):283-290. 

2006

  • Sharpe SW, TJ Johnson, DM Sheen, and DA Atkinson. 2006. "Relative Infrared (IR) and Terahertz (THz) Signatures of Common Explosives." In SPIE Proceedings, vol. 6378, p. 63780A.  SPIE Publishing, Bellingham. 
  • Johnson TJ, SW Sharpe, and MA Covert. 2006. "A Disseminator for Rapid, Selectable and Quantitative Delivery of Low-and Semi-Volatile Liquid Species to the Vapor Phase." Review of Scientific Instruments 77(09):094103.  doi:10.1063/1.2349298
  • Johnson TJ, T Masiello, and SW Sharpe. 2006. "The Quantitative Infrared and NIR Spectrum of CH2I2 Vapor: Vibrational Assignments and Potential for Atmospheric Monitoring." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6(9):2581-2591. 
  • Sharpe SW, RL Sams, and TJ Johnson. 2006. "An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring." SPIE Newsroom 12 April 2006:, doi:10.1117/2.1200603.0152
  • Valentine NB, TJ Johnson, YF Su, and JB Forrester. 2006. "FTIR Spectroscopy for Bacterial Spore Identification and Classification ." In Chemical and Biological Sensors for Industrial and Environmental Monitoring II. Proceedings- SPIE the International Society for Optical Engineering, vol. 6378, ed. S.D. Christesen, A.J. Sedlacek, J.B. Gillespie, K.J. Ewing, p. 63780P, (10 pages).  SPIE Int., Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.686232

2005

  • Johnson TJ, NB Valentine, and SW Sharpe. 2005. "Mid-Infrared Versus Far-Infrared (THz) Relative Intensities of Room-temperature Bacillus Spores." Chemical Physics Letters 403(1-3):152-157. 
  • Redington RL, TE Redington, TA Blake, RL Sams, and TJ Johnson. 2005. "18O Effects on the Infrared Spectrum and Skeletal Tunneling of Tropolone." Journal of Chemical Physics 122:224311. 
  • Thompson SE, A Heredia-Langner, TJ Johnson, NS Foster, NB Valentine, and JE Amonette. 2005. "Statistical Analysis of Noisy Signals Using Classification Tools." In ASQ World Conference on Quality and Improvement Proceedings, vol. 59, pp. 333-334.  American Society for Quality, Milwaukee, WI. 

2004

  • Johnson TJ, BA Roberts, and JF Kelly. 2004. "Semiactive Infrared Remote Sensing: A Practical Prototype and Field Comparison ." Applied Optics 43(3):638-650. 
  • Foster NS, NB Valentine, SE Thompson, TJ Johnson, and JE Amonette. 2004. "FTIR Transmission and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for the Statistical Identification of Bacteria ." In Proceedings of SPIE - Chemical and Biological Point Sensors for Homeland Defense, vol. 5269, ed. Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Richard Colton, Tuan Vo-Dinh, pp. 172-182.  SPIE (International Society for Optical Engineering), Bellingham , WA. 
  • Foster NS, SE Thompson, NB Valentine, JE Amonette, and TJ Johnson. 2004. "Identification of Sporulated and Vegetative Bacteria using Statistical Analysis of Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Transmission Data ." Applied Spectroscopy 58(2):203-211. 
  • Johnson TJ, RL Sams, and SW Sharpe. 2004. "The PNNL Quantitative Infrared Database for Gas-Phase Sensing: A Spectral Library for Environmental, Hazmat and Public Safety Standoff Detection." In Chemical and Biological Point Sensors for Homeland Defense, vol. 5269, ed. AJ Sedlacek III, R Colton and T Vo-Dinh, pp. 159-167.  SPIE, Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.515604
  • Johnson TJ, RL Sams, and SW Sharpe. 2004. "The PNNL Quantitative Infrared Database for Gas-Phase Sensing: A spectral Library for Environmental, Hazmat, and Public Safety Standoff Detection." In Chemical and Biological Point Sensors for Homeland Defense. Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 5269, ed. Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Richard Colton, Tuan Vo-Dinh, pp. 159-167.  International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA. 
  • Sharpe SW, TJ Johnson, RL Sams, PM Chu, GC Rhoderick, and PA Johnson. 2004. "Gas-Phase Database for Quantitative Infrared Spectroscopy." Applied Spectroscopy 58(12):1452-1461. 
  • Valentine NB, TJ Johnson, and SW Sharpe. 2004. "On the Relative Strengths of Bacillus Spore Signatures in the Terahertz (THz)Versus the Mid-Infrared." In Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 5585, pp. 122-127.  International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA. 

2003

  • Johnson TJ, BA Roberts, GP Morgen, MA Hughes, CD Heitschmidt, and JF Kelly. 2003. "A New 'Semi-Active' Method for Chemical Standoff Detection." In Chemical and Biological Standoff Detection, Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 5268, ed. James O. Jensen, Jean-Marc Theriault, pp. 113-124.  SPIE Int Society Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA. 
  • Sharpe SW, TJ Johnson, PM Chu, J Kleimeyer, and B Rowland. 2003. "Quantitative Infrared Spectra of Vapor Phase Chemical Agents." In Chemical and Biological Sensing IV, vol. 5085, ed. PJ Gardner, pp. 19-27.  SPIE , Bellingham, WA. 
  • Sharpe SW, TJ Johnson, PM Chu, J Kleimeyer, and B Rowland. 2003. "Quantitative Infrared Spectra of Vapor Phase Chemical Agents." In Proceedings of SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering: Chemical and Biological Sensing IV, 21-22 April, 2003, Orlando, Florida, USA, vol. 5085, ed. Gardner, Patrick J., pp. 19-27.  SPIE , Bellingham, WA. 
  • Driver CJ, TJ Johnson, YF Su, ML Alexander, RJ Fellows, JK Magnuson, RS Disselkamp, and BA Roberts. 2003. The Impact of Humidity, Temperature and Ultraviolet Light on the Near-Field Environmental Fate of Pinacolyl Alcohol, Methyl Iodide, Methylphosphonic Dichloride (DCMP) and Thionyl Chloride Using an Environmental Wind TunnelPNNL-14172, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Johnson TJ, RS Disselkamp, YF Su, RJ Fellows, ML Alexander, and CJ Driver. 2003. "Gas-Phase Hydrolysis of SOCL2 at 297 and 309 K: Implications for Its Atmospheric Fate ." Journal of Physical Chemistry A 107(32):6183-6190. 
  • Thompson SE, NS Foster, TJ Johnson, NB Valentine, and JE Amonette. 2003. "Identification of Bacterial Spores using Statistical Analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Data ." Applied Spectroscopy 57(8):893-899. 

2002

  • Hatchell BK, WW Harper, CR Batishko, TJ Johnson, DM Sheen, TL Stewart, and JF Schultz. 2002. Fieldable Fourier Transform Spectrometer: System Construction, Background Variability Measurements, and Chemical Attack Warning ExperimentsPNNL-14054, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Johnson TJ, RL Sams, TA Blake, SW Sharpe, and PM Chu. 2002. "Removing Aperture-Induced Artifacts from Fourier Transform Infrared Intensity Values." Applied Optics 41(15):2831-2839. 
  • Sharpe SW, RL Sams, and TJ Johnson. 2002. "The PNNL Quantitative IR Database for Infrared Remote Sensing and Hyperspectral Imaging." In Proceedings : 31st Applied Imagery Pattern Recognition Workshop : 16-18 October 2002, Washington, D.C., pp. 45-48  IEEE Computer Soc., Los Alamitos, CA. 
  • Sharpe SW, RL Sams, and TJ Johnson. 2002. "The PNNL Quantitative IR Database for Infrared Remote Sensing and Hyperspectral Imaging." In Proceedings. 31st Applied Imagery Pattern Recognition Workshop, pp. 45-48.  IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA. 
  • Sharpe SW, RL Sams, TJ Johnson, PM Chu, GC Rhoderick, and FR Guenther. 2002. "Creation of 0.10 cm-1 Resolution, Quantitative, Infrared Spectral Libraries for Gas Samples." In Vibrational spectroscopy-based sensor systems, 1-2 November 2001, Newton, [Mass.], PROCEEDINGS- SPIE THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR OPTICAL ENGINEERING , vol. 4577, ed. Steven D. Christensen; Arthur J. Sedlacek, pp. 12-24.  Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE), Bellingham, WA. 

2001

  • Schiller CL, S Locquiao, TJ Johnson, and GW Harris. 2001. "Atmospheric Measurements of HONO by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy." Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 40(3):275-293. 
  • Sharpe SW, RL Sams, TJ Johnson, and PM Chu. 2001. "Intensity Artifacts in Gas Phase FTIR Spectroscopy: Focus on the Aperture." Chapter FWB5 in Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, 2001. Trends in Optics and Photonics, vol. 51, pp. 123-127.  Optical Society of America, Washington, DC. 

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