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Moving Mountains: Electrons hop through iron oxide minerals in a type of semiconduction

September 13, 2012 Share This!

Research helps clarify how minerals grow and disintegrate

  • In an iron oxide lattice, an electron sits on an iron(II) atom (yellow center). Its negativity attracts the more positive iron(III) atoms (red circles) and repels the more negative oxygen atoms (white circles), creating a physical distortion in the lattice from which the electron escapes only with the help of heat energy.

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RICHLAND, Wash. – Rust — iron oxide — is a poor conductor of electricity, which is why an electronic device with a rusted battery usually won't work. But electrons do move through iron oxide — on seemingly geologic timescales. Now, scientists explain how electrons do this and provide the strongest evidence yet for the leading theory of such movement, a type of semiconduction. Published in Science, the work forms a new foundation for understanding how iron oxide cycles through the earth.

Most iron oxide is in the form of rocks and minerals. Rocks grow and disintegrate via electrons, which control whether passing iron atoms stick and build up the surface or internal ones fall off and break the surface down. What happens depends in part on how fast electrons move through the minerals, something scientists haven't really been able to measure because iron oxide is not a good electrical conductor — extra electrons are tightly trapped in the solid, hardly allowed to move.

The scientists, led by geochemists Kevin Rosso at Pacific Northwest National Lab and Benjamin Gilbert at Berkeley National Lab, explored electrons moving through nanoparticles of iron oxide in various mineral forms such as hematite and maghemite. The work showed the electrons reside in divots called polarons — a little distortion in the otherwise uniform lattice framework caused by the electron's negative charge. And they hop from one divot to the next when they get hot enough, taking anywhere from one to five hops per nanosecond through the iron oxide.

Researchers performed theoretical work at EMSL, the DOE's Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory on the PNNL campus, that showed how the polaron model faithfully reproduced the experimental data collected at Berkeley Lab.

Click here to read the entire news release from Berkeley National Lab.


Reference: Jordan E. Katz, Xiaoyi Zhang, Klaus Attenkofer, Karena W. Chapman, Cathrine Frandsen, Piotr Zarzycki, Kevin M. Rosso, Roger W. Falcone, Glenn A. Waychunas, Benjamin Gilbert. Electron Small Polarons and Their Mobility in Iron (Oxyhydr)oxide Nanoparticles, Sept. 7, 2012, Science, doi: 10.1126/science.1223598.

Tags: Energy, Fundamental Science, EMSL, Chemistry

EMSL, the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, is a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Science.  Located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Wash., EMSL offers an open, collaborative environment for scientific discovery to researchers around the world. Its integrated computational and experimental resources enable researchers to realize important scientific insights and create new technologies. Follow EMSL on Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter.

Interdisciplinary teams at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory address many of America's most pressing issues in energy, the environment and national security through advances in basic and applied science. Founded in 1965, PNNL employs 4,300 staff and has an annual budget of about $950 million. It is managed by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science. As the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, the Office of Science is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information on PNNL, visit the PNNL News Center, or follow PNNL on Facebook, Google+, LinkedIn and Twitter.

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