PNNL Hoisting and Rigging Manual
Critical LiftsScope | Critical Lift Determination | Guidelines and Rules for Critical Lifts | Critical Lift Equipment and Hardware | Critical Lift Plan | Prelift and Field Revision Review Meetings | Special Lifts – Non-Critical Lifts That Require Special Precautions | Worksheets |
This section includes guidelines, rules, and requirements applicable to critical lifts and describes the planning and documentation required to perform a critical lift. This section also summarizes ordinary (non-critical) lifts for which special precautions are required. Non-mandatory worksheets are provided as an aid in determining whether something is a critical lift and planning critical and special lifts.
Critical Lift Determination
The manager who has responsibility for the item to be lifted has the authority to require that it be handled as a critical lift. In addition, the Building Manager and/or Cognizant Space Manager where the lift will be performed also has the authority to require that it be handled as a critical lift. The manager who designates a lift as a critical lift shall ensure that a designated leader be assigned. (See Lift Determination Worksheet [.doc].)
Guidelines and Rules for Critical Lifts
It is important to ensure that rigging; below-the-hook lifting devices; and cranes, hoists, and forklifts have current inspections and are never loaded beyond their rated capacity except for testing.
A lift shall be designated as a critical lift under any of the following circumstances.
- If the item being lifted were to be damaged or upset, it could result in a release of radioactive or hazardous material into the environment which could exceed the established Permissible Environmental Limits (PEL). (Contact the Environmental organization for a determination of these levels.)
- The item being lifted is unique and, if damaged, would be irreplaceable or not repairable and is vital to a system, facility, or project operation.
- The cost to replace or repair the item being lifted, or the delay in operations of having the item damaged would have a severe negative impact on facility, organizational, or budget to the extent that it would affect program commitments.
- The item, although non-critical, is to be lifted above or in close proximity to a critical item or component.
- The load being lifted is 95% or more of a mobile crane’s chart rating for the maximum radius that will be experienced.
- Two mobile cranes are lifting the load and the load share equals more than 70% of one or both crane’s chart rating for the maximum radius that will be experienced.
Note: A critical lift designation provides the following:
- documented step-by-step instructions
- pre-identified load path
- sign-off approvals for technical, management, and safety or engineering
- documentation of lift and pre-job meeting
- independent pre-identification of load weight, load center of gravity, lift attachment points, and lifting hardware minimum capacities (e.g., slings, below-the-hook lifting devices, shackles, etc.) that will be used for the lift or series of lifts
- load testing of the lifting hardware (e.g., slings, below-the-hook lifting devices, shackles, etc.) that will be used for the lift
- Evaluation of hazards associated with the lift that may include environmental, ground support, and physical obstructions
- Pre-identified special limiting or stop-work conditions.
Critical Lift Equipment and Hardware
Before making a critical lift, the designated leader shall ensure that equipment (e.g., cranes, hoists, forklift trucks, etc.) inspections are current and that load tests have been done for slings, rigging, rigging hardware, and below-the-hook devices. (Exceptions apply to manufacturer-installed rigging hardware.)
Manufacturer-Installed Rigging Hardware on Engineered Equipment
Engineered equipment with manufacturer-installed rigging hardware (e.g., eyebolts, swivel hoist rings, etc.) should be purchased with load-test documentation supplied. Rigging hardware on engineered equipment, installed by the equipment manufacturer, without test documentation, may be used if approved by a rigging specialist or qualified engineer and inspected by a qualified inspector before use.
Rigging Hardware for Critical Lifts
The rigging hardware components (e.g., slings, shackles, chain, etc.) to be used in critical lifts shall be rated-capacity and/or load tested. Rigging components that have been load tested shall be marked or tagged by the user, a third party, or the manufacturer to verify the rated-capacity or load test. Documentation shall be traceable to the hardware. Traceability may be accomplished placing a tag or other permanent marking on the hardware. The manufacturer, the user, or a third party may perform load tests. Tags or other permanent marking fulfill documentation requirements without paperwork, except for below-the-hook lifting devices, which require additional documentation. (See Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices.)
Rigging Hardware Rated-Capacity Testing for Critical Lift
Rigging hardware for critical lifts can include the following and shall meet the requirements found in the referenced section.
- Wire Rope Slings, including the following:
- swaged socket and poured socket assemblies
- hand tucked
- mechanical-splice, single-leg, and endless wire rope slings
- multiple-leg bridal
- master link to which multiple-leg slings are connected.
See Slings for wire rope, sling-rated load-test requirements.
- Alloy Chain Slings, including the following:
- single- or multiple-leg slings, each leg
- master links and coupling links (forged or welded) for multiple-leg chain slings.
See Slings for alloy chain slings, rated load-test requirements.
- Metal Mesh Slings. See Slings for metal mesh slings, rated load-test requirements.
- Synthetic Web Slings. See Slings for synthetic web slings rated load-test requirements.
- Synthetic Rope Slings. See Slings for synthetic rope slings rated load-test requirements.
- Shackles. See Rigging Hardware for shackles rated load-test requirements.
- Eyebolts. See Rigging Hardware for eyebolts rated load-test requirements.
- Rings (Forged and Welded). See Rigging Hardware for rings rated load-test requirements.
- Swivel Hoist Rings. See Rigging Hardware for swivel hoist rings rated load-test requirements.
- Turnbuckles. See Rigging Hardware for turnbuckles rated-load-test requirements
- Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices (in accordance with ASME B30.20). See Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices for rated load-test requirements and for requirements imposed by ANSI N14.6.
- Dynamometers and Precision Load-Position Devices (hydro-set). Load test at maximum capacity.
Note: The tolerance for load tests and proof tests is +0, -5%. If the hardware manufacturer recommends loads greater than those listed in the referenced section, the manufacturer’s recommendations should be followed.
Critical Lift Plan
A step-by-step plan or work instructions shall be prepared or approved by a technically qualified person. (See Plan Worksheet [.doc].) Critical lift plans shall contain the following:
Note: The items in the following list are required as designated by the key:
*Generally required, depending on situation and equipment used
- **Identity of the item(s) to be lifted.
- *Special precautions, if any (such as mats for mobile cranes).
- **Weight of the item and total weight of the load. (For mobile cranes, see the manufacturer’s instructions regarding components and attachments that must be considered as part of the load.)
- *Location of the center of gravity.
- **A list that specifies each piece of equipment (e.g., crane, hoist, fork truck), accessory, and rigging component (e.g., slings, shackles, spreader bars, yokes) to be used for the lift. (This list shall identify each piece of equipment by type and rated capacity.)
- *Designated checkpoints or hold points and estimated instrument readings, as relevant, so that job progress can be checked against the plan.
Note: Sign-offs in the plan generally are appropriate. For example, initial, mark the time and date the plan as key steps are completed. Hold points or sign-off points should be provided for personnel assigned to witness the work.
- *Rigging sketch(es), which include the following:
- lift point identification
- method(s) of attachment
- load angle factors (e.g., vertical and horizontal vectors of sling loads)
- sling angles
- accessories used
- other factors affecting the equipment capacity
- rated capacity of equipment in the configuration(s) in which it will be used. (For mobile cranes, many factors affect rated capacity, including boom length, boom angle, and work area.)
- *A load-path sketch that shows the load path and height at key points in the job. (For lifts with mobile cranes, include the crane position(s) relative to the load and relative to surrounding obstructions. Where appropriate, include floor- or soil-loading diagrams.)
- *A sketch indicating lifting and travel speed limitations. (This may be noted on the load- path sketch or on a separate sketch.)
- **A sign-off sheet to verify that equipment and hardware inspections and tests are current.
- *Practice lifts are recommended. (If used, requirements for the practice lift should be documented in the plan.)
Note: Although individual plans are prepared for one-time critical lifts, more general (multi-use) plans may be employed to accomplish recurrent critical lifts. For example, a general plan may be used to lift an item or series of similar items that are handled repeatedly in the same manner.
Critical Lift Plan Approval
The critical lift plan or work instructions should be approved as required by the responsible organization and, as a minimum, shall be signed and dated by the following:
- manager responsible for the item to be lifted
- qualified engineer or assigned occupational safety representative.
Critical Lift Plan Field Revisions
Critical lift plan or work instruction field revisions shall be accomplished by drawing a single line through the original (deleted) text and inserting the field revision close to the deleted text. The field revision shall be initialed and dated by the person(s) making the revision. Text shall not be obliterated by the use of correction fluid, correction tape, scribbling, erasure, or any other method. Field revisions should be approved as required by the responsible contractor's plans. As a minimum, critical lift field revisions shall be signed and dated in the margin of each revised page by all of the following:
- manager of the lifting operation or facility manager
- designated leader
- qualified engineer or assigned occupational safety representative.
Note: Critical lift field revisions may be confirmed by telephone and must be signed and dated within two working days of the field revision.
Prelift and Field Revision Review Meetings
Before performing a critical lift and immediately following a field revision, participating personnel shall meet to accomplish the following.
Note: The designated leader or facility-assigned person shall ensure that all members of the work team completely understand the work instructions or field revision.
- review the critical lift plan or field revision
- discuss any hazards, controls, hold points, coordination with other work groups, unique conditions, and emergency contingencies
- resolve questions before beginning work.
This section also provides for use of pre-engineered lifting that may include independent pre- identification of load weight, load center of gravity, lift attachment points, and minimum lifting hardware (e.g., slings, below-the-hook lifting devices, shackles, etc.) capacities that will be used for the lift or series of lifts of non-critical items.
Special Lifts – Non-Critical Lifts That Require Special Precautions
As addressed in other parts of this manual, certain lifting operations require special precautions. (See Special Lift Determination Worksheet [.doc].) Special precautions are suggested under the following conditions:
- Personnel are being lifted with cranes or forklifts. For forklift trucks, follow the requirements found in Forklifts.
- Two or more cranes will be used to make a lift. (For hoists, jib cranes, and monorail systems, follow requirements found in Hoists, Jib Cranes, and Monorail. For overhead and gantry cranes, follow the requirements found in Overhead and Gantry Cranes.)
Pre-Engineered Lifts. Independent pre-identification of load weight, load center of gravity, lift attachment points, and minimum lifting hardware capacities (slings, below-the-hook lifting devices, etc.) that will be used for the lift or series of lifts for non-critical items such as the following:
- Large or unusually configured loads outside a fork truck's load center will be handled. Follow the requirements found in Forklifts.
- Loads in close proximity to an existing building or operating equipment.
- Non routine rigging configurations are being used or items require special care because of size, weight, close–tolerance installation, or high susceptibility to damage.
Note: The Special Lift section provides elements of sections in the manual that contain additional requirements when performing specific hoisting and rigging activities and allows the adoption of elements of the critical lift requirements, at management’s discretion, to provide additional administrative and physical controls. The Special Lift category provides for the use of pre-engineered lifting that may include independent pre-identification of load weight, load center of gravity, lift attachment points and minimum lifting hardware (e.g., slings, below-the-hook lifting devices, shackles, spacers, softeners, etc.) capacities that will be used for the lift or series of lifts of non-critical items.
Worksheets are provided as an aid and are not required documents. A qualified engineer, occupational safety representative, designated leader, or rigging specialist may determine that additional elements need to be considered. The following sample worksheets are provided:
- Lift Determination Worksheet (.doc)
- Special Lift Determination Worksheet (.doc)
- Load Worksheet (.doc)
- Rigging Hardware Worksheet (.doc)
- Crane Worksheet (.doc)
- Forklift Worksheet (.doc)
- Personnel Worksheet (.doc)
- Plan Worksheet (.doc)