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Biological Sciences Staff information

Karla Thrall

Deputy Division Director
Scientist, TL
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: J4-02
Richland, WA 99352


Dr. Karla Thrall is a board-certified toxicologist with > 20 years of experience in toxicology and pharmacokinetics. She is an Associate Division Director and Staff Scientist in the Biological Sciences Division, and also serves as the Chair of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Dr. Thrall received a Ph.D. in Toxicology from Washington State University and was certified as a Diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology (DABT) in 1995, and recertified in 2000, 2005, and 2010. Dr. Thrall is a member of the Society of Toxicology, Radiation Research, and the Pacific Northwest Association of Toxicologists. Her research has centered on the conduct of in vivo animal and human studies to understand the absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of compounds within the body. More recently, she is focused on the evaluation of bioavailability, evaluation of species differences in pharmacokinetics, and research to understand the disease sequelae and development of medical countermeasures for radiological and nuclear exposures.

Research Interests

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Toxicology, Washington State University
  • B.S., Chemistry, Humboldt State University
  • DABT, Diplomate, American Board of Toxicology

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Society of Toxicology
  • Radiation Research Society
  • Pacific Northwest Association of Toxicologists

Awards and Recognitions

  • 2002 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Woman of Achievement
  • DOE Office of Science Education Outstanding Mentor Award (2002)

PNNL Publications


  • Thrall KD, JA Lovaglio, MK Murphy, RN Cataneo, A Chaturvedi, M Mundada, U Patel, and M Phillips. 2013. "A Dose-Dependent Hematological Evaluation of Whole-Body Gamma-Irradiation in the Gottingen Minipig." Health Physics 105(3):245-252.  doi:10.1097/HP.0b013e31829253a1


  • Levitskaia TG, SA Bryan, JA Creim, TL Curry, T Luders, KD Thrall, and JM Peterson. 2012. "Optical Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis for Biodosimetry and Monitoring of Radiation Injury to the Skin." Drug Development Research 73(5):252-273.  doi:10.1002/ddr.21021


  • Levitskaia TG, JA Creim, TL Curry, T Luders, JM Peterson, KD Thrall, and B Levinson. 2011. "Evaluation of CuprimineŽ and SyprineŽ for Decorporation of Radioisotopes of Cesium, Cobalt, Iridium, and Strontium." Health Physics 101(2):118-127.  doi:10.1097/HP.0b013e318208ceb6


  • Thrall KD. 2010. "Vapor Dosimetry in the Nose and Upper Airways of Humans." Chapter 7 in Toxicology of the Nose and Upper Airways, ed. JB Morris & DJ Shusterman , pp. 116-121.  Informa Healthcare , New York. 
  • Levitskaia TG, JA Creim, TL Curry, T Luders, JE Morris, AD Woodstock, B Levinson, and KD Thrall. 2010. "Evaluation of CuprimineŽ and SyprineŽ for Decorporation of 60 Cobalt and 210 Polonium." Health Physics 98(3):471-479. 
  • Levitskaia TG, JA Creim, TL Curry, T Luders, JE Morris, JM Peterson, and KD Thrall. 2010. "Biomaterials for the Decorporation of Sr-85 in the Rat." Health Physics 99(3):394-400. 
  • Levitskaia TG, JE Morris, JA Creim, AD Woodstock, T Luders, TL Curry, and KD Thrall. 2010. "Aminothiol Receptors for Decorporation of Intravenously Administered 60Co in the Rat." Health Physics 98(1):53-60. 
  • Poston TM, KD Thrall, and JD Penner. 2010. "IACUC evaluation and external scientific review. IACUC Overstepping its Bounds." Lab Animal 39(9):260. 


  • Levitskaia TG, JA Creim, TL Curry, T Luders, JE Morris, SI Sinkov, AD Woodstock, and KD Thrall. 2009. "Investigation of Chitosan for Decorporation of 60Co in the Rat ." Health Physics 97(2):115-124. 
  • Poet TS, H Wu, RA Corley, and KD Thrall. 2009. "In vitro glutathione conjugation of methyl iodide in rat, rabbit, and human blood and tissues." Inhalation Toxicology 21(5-7):524-530. 
  • Sweeney LM, CR Kirman, SA Gannon, KD Thrall, ML Gargas, and JH Kinzell. 2009. "Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for methyl iodide in rats, rabbits, and humans." Inhalation Toxicology 21(5-7):552-582. 
  • Thrall KD, AD Woodstock, JJ Soelberg, ML Gargas, JH Kinzell, and RA Corley. 2009. "A real-time methodology to evaluate the nasal absorption of volatile compounds in anesthetized animals ." Inhalation Toxicology 21(6):531-536. 
  • Thrall KD, LB Sasser, JA Creim, ML Gargas, JH Kinzell, and RA Corley. 2009. "Studies supporting the development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for methyl iodide: pharmacokinetics of sodium iodide (NaI) in pregnant rabbits." Inhalation Toxicology 21(6):519-523. 


  • Sweeney LM, KD Thrall, TS Poet, R Corley, TJ Weber, BJ Locey, J Clarkson, S Sager, and ML Gargas. 2008. "Physiologically based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of 1,4-Dioxane in Rats, Mice, and Humans." Toxicological Sciences 101(1):32-50.  doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfm251
  • Thrall KD, JJ Soelberg, T Powell, and RA Corley. 2008. "Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of the Disposition of Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) Migration from Implants in Humans." Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants 18(2):133-144. 


  • Thrall KD, RA Gies, AM Cartmell, H Wu, JJ Soelberg, and JA Klein. 2007. "A Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Method to Evaluate the Distribution Kinetics of 1,2-Diethylbenzene and its Metabolite, 1,2-Diacetylbenzene in the F344 Male Rat." Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 70(1):67-72.  doi:10.1080/15287390600751173


  • Thrall KD. 2006. "AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR THE BIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS." Chapter 8 in Environmental Health in Central and Eastern Europe, ed. K.C. Donnelly and L.H. Cizmas, pp. 65-71.  Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands. 


  • Hinderliter PM, KD Thrall, RA Corley, LJ Bloemen, and MS Bogdanffy. 2005. "Validation of Human Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Vinyl Acetate Against Human Nasal Dosimetry Data." Toxicological Sciences 85(1):460-467.  doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfi091


  • Thrall KD, and AD Woodstock. 2003. "Evaluation of the Dermal Bioavailability of Aqueous Xylene in F344 Rats and Human Volunteers ." Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 66(13):1267-1281. 
  • Thrall KD, RE Schwartz, KK Weitz, JJ Soelberg, GL Foureman, JD Prah, and C Timchalk. 2003. "A Real-time Method to Evaluate the Nasal Deposition and Clearance of Acetone in the Human Volunteer." Inhalation Toxicology 15(6):523-538. 


  • Lin Y, C Timchalk, DW Matson, H Wu, and KD Thrall. 2001. "Integrated Microfluidics/Electrochemical Sensor System for Monitoring of Environmental Exposures to Lead and Chlorophenols." Biomedical Microdevices 3(4):331-338. 
  • Benson JM, BM Tibbetts, KD Thrall, and DL Springer. 2001. "Uptake, Tissue Distribution, and Fate of Inhaled Carbon Tetrachloride: Comparison of Rat, Mouse, and Hamster." Inhalation Toxicology 13:207-217. 
  • Soldat KL, and KD Thrall. 2001. "Design and Evaluation of a Breath Analysis System for Occupational Exposure Assessment." In Environmental Health Risk. First International Conference on the Impact of Environmental Factors on Health 10 - 12 September 2001, Cardiff, Wales, UK , pp. 83-94.  Wit Press, Southhampton, United Kingdom. 
  • Thrall KD, PJ Callahan, KK Weitz, JA Edwards, MC Brinkman, and DV Kenny. 2001. "Design and evaluation of a breath-analysis system for biological monitoring of volatile compounds." American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 62(1):28-35. 
  • Timchalk C, TS Poet, Y Lin, KK Weitz, R Zhao, and KD Thrall. 2001. "Development of an Integrated Micro-Analytical System for Lead in Saliva and Linkage to a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model Describing Lead Saliva Secretion ." American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 62(3):295-302. 


  • Poet TS, RA Corley, KD Thrall, JA Edwards, H Tanojo, KK Weitz, X Hui, HI Maibach, and RC Wester. 2000. "Assessment of the Percutaneous Absorption of Trichloroethylene in Rats and Humans Using MS/MS Real Time Breath Analysis and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling." Toxicological Sciences 56(1):61-72. 
  • Poet TS, KD Thrall, RA Corley, XY Hui, JA Edwards, KK Weitz, HI Maibach, and RC Wester. 2000. "Utility of real time breath analysis and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to determine the percutaneous absorption of methyl chloroform in rats and humans ." Toxicological Sciences 54(1):42-51. 
  • Thrall KD, ME Vucelick, RA Gies, RC Zangar, KK Weitz, TS Poet, DL Springer, DM Grant, and JM Benson. 2000. "Comparative Metabolism of Carbon Tetrachloride in Rats, Mice and Hamsters Using Gas Uptake and PBPK Modeling." Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 60(8):531-548. 
  • Thrall KD, TS Poet, RA Corley, H Tanojo, JA Edwards, KK Weitz, X Hui, HI Maibach, and RC Wester. 2000. "A Real-Time In-vivo Method for Studying the Percutaneous Absorption of Volatile Chemicals." International Journal of Occupational Environmental Health 6(2):96-103. 


  • Lin Y, R Zhao, KD Thrall, C Timchalk, WD Bennett, and DW Matson. 1999. "Integration of Microfluidics/Electrochemical System for Trace Metal Analysis by Stripping Voltammetry." In Proceedings of SPIE. Microfludic Devices and Systems II: September 20-21, 1999, Santa Clara, California, vol. 3877, ed. C.H. Ahn and A.B. Frazier, pp. 248-256.  SPIE , Bellingham, WA. 
  • Thrall KD, TS Poet, and RA Corley. 1999. "An Innovative Method to Determine Percutaneous Absorption: Real-Time Analysis and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling ." Chapter 55 in Percutaneous Absorption: Drugs-Cosmetics-Mechanisms-Methodology, ed. Robert L. Bronaugh and Howard I. Maibach, pp. 929-937.  Marcel Dekker, Inc. , New York, NY. 

Biological Sciences

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