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Biological Sciences Staff information

Brian Thrall

Brian Thrall

Deputy Division Director
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: J4-02
Richland, WA 99352


Dr. Brian Thrall is Associate Director of Biological Sciences and is the Technical Group Manager for Cell Biology and Biochemistry at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Dr. Thrall also holds adjunct positions in the Graduate Research Program at Washington State University and regularly serves as a reviewer for panels for the National Institutes of Health in the area of proteomic and genomic analysis of the health effects of enviromental agents.

Dr. Thrall's laboratory currently focuses on understanding the mechanisms in which engineered nanonomaterials interact with cells and tissues. Using macrophages and a variety of epithelial cell types as models systems, his research employs genomic, proteomic, and cellular imaging approaches, coupled with computational biology strategies to identify the pathways modulated by nanoparticles and the implications of these pathways for human health. The goal of these studies is to identify fundamental principles which dictate biocompatibility of nanomaterials in order to guide safe and effective applications of these technologies.

Research Interests

  • Nanotoxicology
  • Modulation of cell signaling pathways by environmental agents

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Pharmacology, Washington State University
  • M.A., Biology, University of South Dakota
  • B.S., Biology, University of South Dakota

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Society for Cell Biology
  • Society of Toxicology, Molecular Biology Specialty Section
  • Pacific Northwest Association of Toxicologist
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science

PNNL Publications


  • Su D, MJ Gaffrey, J Guo, KE Hatchell, RK Chu, TRW Clauss, JT Aldrich, S Wu, SO Purvine, DG Camp, II, RD Smith, BD Thrall, and W Qian. 2014. "Proteomic Identification and Quantification of S-glutathionylation in Mouse Macrophages Using Resin-Assisted Enrichment and Isobaric Labeling." Free Radical Biology & Medicine 67:460-470.  doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.12.004
  • Teeguarden JG, VB Mikheev, KR Minard, WC Forsythe, W Wang, G Sharma, NJ Karin, SC Tilton, KM Waters, B Asgharian, O Price, JG Pounds, and BD Thrall. 2014. "Comparative Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Cellular Dosimetry and Response in Mice by the Inhalation and Liquid Cell Culture Exposure Routes." Particle and Fibre Toxicology 11:Article No. 46.  doi:10.1186/s12989-014-0046-4


  • Kodali VK, MH Littke, SC Tilton, JG Teeguarden, L Shi, CW Frevert, W Wang, JG Pounds, and BD Thrall. 2013. "Dysregulation of Macrophage Activation Profiles by Engineered Nanoparticles." ACS Nano 7(8):6997-7010.  doi:10.1021/nn402145t
  • Minard KR, MH Littke, W Wang, Y Xiong, JG Teeguarden, and BD Thrall. 2013. "Magnetic Particle Detection (MPD) for In-Vitro Dosimetry." Biosensors and Bioelectronics 43:88-93.  doi:10.1016/j.bios.2012.12.011
  • Sharma G, VK Kodali, MJ Gaffrey, W Wang, KR Minard, NJ Karin, JG Teeguarden, and BD Thrall. 2013. "Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Agglomeration Influences Dose-Rates and Modulates Oxidative Stress Mediated Dose-Response Profiles In Vitro." Nanotoxicology 8(6):663-675.  doi:10.3109/17435390.2013.822115


  • Waters KM, T Liu, RD Quesenberry, AR Willse, S Bandyopadhyay, LE Kathmann, TJ Weber, RD Smith, HS Wiley, and BD Thrall. 2012. "Network Analysis of Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling using Integrated Genomic, Proteomic and Phosphorylation Data ." PLoS One 7(3):Article No. e34515.  doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034515
  • Karakoti AS, P Munusamy, KE Hostetler, VK Kodali, SVNT Kuchibhatla, G Orr, JG Pounds, JG Teeguarden, BD Thrall, and DR Baer. 2012. "Preparation and Characterization Challenges to Understanding Environmental and Biological Impacts of Ceria Nanoparticles." Surface and Interface Analysis 44(8):881-889.  doi:10.1002/sia.5006
  • Nielsen CE, DA Wilson, AL Brooks, S McCord, GE Dagle, AC James, SY Tolmachev, BD Thrall, and WF Morgan. 2012. "Microdistribution and Long-Term Retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the Respiratory Tracts of an Acutely Exposed Plutonium Worker and Experimental Beagle Dogs." Cancer Research 72(21):5529-5536.  doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-1824
  • Thrall BD, KR Minard, JG Teeguarden, and KM Waters. 2012. Multiscale Toxicology - Building the Next Generation Tools for ToxicologyPNNL-21916, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 


  • Baer DR, AS Karakoti, P Munusamy, BD Thrall, JG Pounds, JG Teeguarden, JE Amonette, G Orr, PG Tratnyek, and JT Nurmi. 2011. "Testing in EHS: What is the Current Status of Experimentation?" In 11th IEEE International Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO 2011), August 15-18, 2011, Portland, Oregon, pp. 18-19.  IEEE, Piscataway, NJ.  doi:10.1109/NANO.2011.6144671
  • McDermott JE, MN Archuleta, BD Thrall, JN Adkins, and KM Waters. 2011. "Controlling the Response: Predictive Modeling of a Highly Central, Pathogen-Targeted Core Response Module in Macrophage Activation." PLoS One 6(2):e14673.  doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014673
  • Orr G, WB Chrisler, KJ Cassens, R Tan, BJ Tarasevich, LM Markillie, RC Zangar, and BD Thrall. 2011. "Cellular Recognition and Trafficking of Amorphous Silica Nanoparticles by Macrophage Scavenger Receptor A." Nanotoxicology 5(3):296-311.  doi:10.3109/17435390.2010.513836
  • Zhang H, KE Burnum, ML Luna, BO Petritis, JS Kim, W Qian, RJ Moore, A Heredia-Langner, BJM Webb-Robertson, BD Thrall, DG Camp, II, RD Smith, JG Pounds, and T Liu. 2011. "Quantitative proteomics analysis of adsorbed plasma proteins classifies nanoparticles with different surface properties and size." Proteomics 11(23):4569-4577.  doi:10.1002/pmic.201100037


  • Hinderliter PM, KR Minard, G Orr, WB Chrisler, BD Thrall, JG Pounds, and JG Teeguarden. 2010. "ISDD: A Computational Model of Particle Sedimentation, Diffusion and Target Cell Dosimetry for In Vitro Toxicity Studies." Particle and Fibre Toxicology 7(November):Article No. 36.  doi:10.1186/1743-8977-7-36


  • Waters KM, LM Masiello, RC Zangar, BJ Tarasevich, NJ Karin, RD Quesenberry, S Bandyopadhyay, JG Teeguarden, JG Pounds, and BD Thrall. 2009. "Macrophage Responses to Silica Nanoparticles are Highly Conserved Across Particle Sizes." Toxicological Sciences 107(2):553-569. 


  • Jacobs JM, KM Waters, LE Kathmann, DG Camp, II, HS Wiley, RD Smith, and BD Thrall. 2008. "The Mammary Epithelial Cell Secretome and its Regulation by Signal Transduction Pathways." Journal of Proteome Research 7(2):558-569.  doi:10.1021/pr0704377
  • Rogers S, M Girolami, W Kolch, KM Waters, T Liu, BD Thrall, and HS Wiley. 2008. "Investigating the Correspondence Between Transcriptomic and Proteomic Expression Profiles Using Coupled Cluster Models." Bioinformatics 24(24):2894-2900.  doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btn553


  • Teeguarden JG, PM Hinderliter, G Orr, BD Thrall, and JG Pounds. 2007. "Particokinetics In Vitro: Dosimetry Considerations for In Vitro Nanoparticle Toxicity Assessments." Toxicological Sciences 95(2):300-312.  doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfl165


  • Waters KM, JG Pounds, and BD Thrall. 2006. "Data Merging for Integrated Microarray and Proteomic Analysis." Briefings in Functional Genomics and Proteomics 5(4):261-272.  doi:10.1093/bfgp/ell019
  • Weber TJ, HS Smallwood, LE Kathmann, LM Markillie, TC Squier, and BD Thrall. 2006. "Functional link between TNF biosynthesis and CaM-dependent activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in RAW 264.7 macrophages ." American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology 290(6):C1512-C1520.  doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00527.2005


  • Sowa MB, LE Kathmann, BA Holben, BD Thrall, and GA Kimmel. 2005. "Low-LET Microbeam Investigation of the Track-End Dependence of Electron-Induced Damage in Normal Human Diploid Fibroblasts." Radiation Research 164(5):677-679. 
  • Liu T, W Qian, WNU Chen, JM Jacobs, RJ Moore, DJ Anderson, MA Gritsenko, ME Monroe, BD Thrall, DG Camp, II, and RD Smith. 2005. "Improved Proteome Coverage by Using High Efficiency Cysteinyl-peptide Enrichment: The Human Mammary Epithelial Cell Proteome." Proteomics 5(5):1263-1273. 


  • Liu T, W Qian, EF Strittmatter, DG Camp, II, GA Anderson, BD Thrall, and RD Smith. 2004. "High throughput comparative proteome analysis using a quantitative cysteinyl-peptide enrichment technology." Analytical Chemistry 76(18):5345-5353. 
  • Chen WNU, RL Woodbury, LE Kathmann, L Opresko, RC Zangar, HS Wiley, and BD Thrall. 2004. "Induced autocrine signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor contributes to the response of mammary epithelial cells to tumor necrosis factor alpha." Journal of Biological Chemistry 279(18):18488-18496. 
  • Jacobs JM, HM Mottaz, LR Yu, DJ Anderson, RJ Moore, WNU Chen, KJ Auberry, EF Strittmatter, ME Monroe, BD Thrall, DG Camp, II, and RD Smith. 2004. "Multidimensional Proteome Analysis of Human Mammary Epithelial Cells." Journal of Proteome Research 3(1):68-75. 
  • Minard KR, GR Holtom, LE Kathmann, PD Majors, BD Thrall, and RA Wind. 2004. "Simultaneous 1H PFG-NMR and Confocal Microscopy of Monolayer Cell Cultures: Effects of Apoptosis and Necrosis on Water Diffusion and Compartmentalization." Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 52(3):495-505. 
  • Weber TJ, S Negash, HS Smallwood, KS Ramos, BD Thrall, and TC Squier. 2004. "Calmodulin Involvement in Stress-Activated Nuclear Localization of Albumin in JB6 Epithelial Cells." Biochemistry 43(23):7443-7450. 


  • Chen WNU, LR Yu, EF Strittmatter, BD Thrall, DG Camp, II, and RD Smith. 2003. "Detection of in situ labeled cell surface proteins by mass spectrometry: application to the membrane subproteome of human mammary epithelial cells." Proteomics 3(8):1647-1651. 
  • Harms GS, G Orr, M Montal, BD Thrall, SD Colson, and HP Lu. 2003. "Probing conformational changes of gramicidin ion channels by single-molecule patch-clamp fluorescence microscopy." Biophysical Journal 85(3):1826-1838. 
  • Poet TS, JJ Soelberg, KK Weitz, TJ Mast, RA Miller, BD Thrall, and RA Corley. 2003. "Mode of Action and Pharmacokinetic Studies of 2-Butoxyethanol in the Mouse with an Emphasis on Forestomach Dosimetry." Toxicological Sciences 71(2):176-189. 


  • Pasa-Tolic L, R Harkewicz, GA Anderson, N Tolic, Y Shen, R Zhao, BD Thrall, CD Masselon, and RD Smith. 2002. "Increased Proteome Coverage for Quantitative Peptide Abundance Measurements Based upon High Performance Separations and DREAMS FTICR Mass Spectrometry." Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 13(8):954-963. 
  • Sowa MB, GA Kimmel, JH Miller, JC Mcdonald, MK Murphy, DJ Strom, BD Thrall, NF Metting, and SD Colson. 2002. "Spatially Resolved Single-Cell Irradiator to Study Bystander Responses to Low-LET Radiation." Radiation Research 158(3):375-376. 
  • Bull RJ, GA Orner, LB Sasser, RS Cheng, LC Stillwell, AJ Stauber, MK Lingohr, and BD Thrall. 2002. "The Contribution of Dichloroacetate and Trichloroacetate to Liver Tumor Induction in Mice by Trichloroethylene." Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 182(1):55-65.  doi:10.1006/taap.2002.9427
  • Bull RJ, GA Orner, RS Cheng, LC Stillwell, AJ Stauber, LB Sasser, MK Lingohr, and BD Thrall. 2002. "Contribution of Dichloroacetate and Trichloroacetate to Liver Tumor Induction in Mice by Trichloroethylene." Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 182(1):55-65. 
  • Gorbunov NV, JE Morris, JS Greenberger, and BD Thrall. 2002. "Establishment of a novel clonal murine bone marrow stromal cell line for assessment of p53 responses to genotoxic stress." Toxicology 179(3):257-266. 
  • Holtom GR, SD Colson, and BD Thrall. 2002. "Locating Molecules Using Optical Microscopy: 3-D Imaging by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering." In IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging : proceedings : July 7-10, 2002, Ritz-Carlton Hotel, Washington, D.C., USA, pp. 781-784.  IEEE , Piscataway, NJ. 
  • Lingohr MK, RJ Bull, J Kato-Weinstein, and BD Thrall. 2002. "Dichloroacetate Stimulates Glycogen Accumulation in Primary Hepatocytes through an Insulin-Independent Mechanism." Toxicological Sciences 68:508-515. 
  • Wind RA, PD Majors, KR Minard, EJ Ackerman, DS Daly, GR Holtom, BD Thrall, and TJ Weber. 2002. "Combined Confocal and Magnetic Resonance Microscopy." Applied Magnetic Resonance 22(2):145-158. 


  • Conrads TP, K Alving, TD Veenstra, ME Belov, GA Anderson, DJ Anderson, MS Lipton, L Pasa-Tolic, HR Udseth, WB Chrisler, BD Thrall, and RD Smith. 2001. "Quantitative Analysis of Bacterial and Mammalian Proteomes using a Combination of Cysteine Affinity Tags and 15N-Metabolic Labeling." Analytical Chemistry 73(9):2132-2139. 
  • Holtom GR, BD Thrall, BY Chin, HS Wiley, and SD Colson. 2001. "Achieving molecular selectivity in imaging using multiphoton Raman spectroscopy techniques." Traffic 2(11):781-788. 
  • Kato-Weinstein J, AJ Stauber, GA Orner, BD Thrall, and RJ Bull. 2001. "Differential Effects of Dihalogenated and Trihalogenated Acetates in the Liver of B6C3F1 Mice ." Journal of Applied Toxicology 21(2):81-89. 
  • Kato-Weinstein J, AJ Stauber, GA Orner, BD Thrall, and RJ Bull. 2001. "Differential Effects of Dihalogenated and Trihalogenated Acetates in the Liver of B6C3F1 Mice." Journal of Applied Toxicology 21(2):81-89. 
  • Kato-Weinstein J, GA Orner, BD Thrall, and RJ Bull. 2001. "Differences in the detection of c-Jun and ubiquitin immunoreactive proteins by different c-Jun antibodies." Toxicology Methods 11(3):189-207. 
  • Lingohr MK, BD Thrall, and RJ Bull. 2001. "Effects of Dichloroacetate (DCA) on Serum Insulin Levels and Insulin-controlled Signaling Proteins in Livers of Male B6C3F1 Mice." Toxicological Sciences 59(1):178-184. 


  • Gorbunov NV, KL Epperly, WL Bigbee, R Draviam, JE Morris, JS Greenberger, and BD Thrall. 2000. "Activation of nuclear factor kappa B, nitric oxide synthase II, and Tp53 in response of bone marrow stromal cells to the oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. ." Free Radical Biology & Medicine 29(1):S56. 


  • Miller DL, S Bao, RA Gies, and BD Thrall. 1999. "Ultrasonic Enhancement of Gene Transfection in Murine Melanoma Tumors." Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology 25(9):1425-1430. 
  • Mounho BJ, and BD Thrall. 1999. "The Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Pathway Contributes to Mitogenic and Anti-apoptotic Effects of Peroxisome Proliferators In Vitro." Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 159(2):125-133. 
  • Xu N, L Pasa-Tolic, RD Smith, S Ni, and BD Thrall. 1999. "Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry Study of the Interaction of Cisplatin-Adducted Oligonucleotides with Human XPA Minimal Binding Domain Protein." Analytical Biochemistry 272(1):26-33. 


  • Buchko GW, S Ni, BD Thrall, and MA Kennedy. 1998. "Structural Features of the Minimal DNA Binding Domain (M98-F219) of Human Nucleotide Excision Repair Protein XPA." Nucleic Acids Research 26(11):2779-2788. 
  • Bull RJ, GA Orner, J Kato-Weinstein, BD Thrall, and MK Smith. 1998. "Effects of Dichloroacetate on Glycogen Metabolism in B6C3F1 Mice ." Toxicology 130:141-154. 

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