The integration of exposure and the impact of exposure.
PNNL research has developed novel source to outcome modeling strategies to improve the science of risk assessment of environmental stressors using models that link exposure, dose, and response to investigate differences in risk for different age groups and in potentially sensitive populations. For example, for a common pesticide chlorpyrifos, this strategy links a longitudinal exposure model with physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics models that describe variability in individual metabolism and cholinesterase enzyme inhibition.
The strategy has been embraced by regulatory agencies and is considered the gold standard in extrapolating from animals to humans, from high doses used in toxicity testing to low, environmentally relevant human exposures, and from one route of exposure to another.
Hinderliter PM, PS Price, MJ Bartels, C Timchalk, and TS Poet. 2011. "Development of a Source-to-Outcome Model for Dietary Exposures to Insecticide Residues: An Example Using Chlorpyrifos." Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 61(1):82-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2011.06.004