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Atmospheric Science & Global Change

Staff information

Lai-yung Ruby Leung

Lai-yung Ruby Leung

Climate Physics
Laboratory Fellow
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K9-24
Richland, WA 99352


Dr. Ruby Leung is a recognized leader in regional climate modeling. She has been actively involved in the modeling of regional and global climate, developing subgrid cloud parameterizations, and coupling land and atmosphere models. She has applied regional and global climate models and hydrology models to understand the impacts of climate variability and change on water resources in the United States and East Asia. Her research on climate change impacts has been featured in Science, Popular Science, Wall Street Journal, National Public Radio, and many major newspapers.

Dr. Leung develops subgrid cloud parameterizations to represent the influence of subgrid-scale terrain variations on orographic precipitation, and turbulence and cloud-radiation interaction effects on stratocumulus clouds. Her research approach consists of formulating the subgrid parameterizations, implementing them in regional and global climate models, and evaluating the parameterizations. Through the development of the subgrid orographic precipitation scheme, she developed a unique framework for coupling atmospheric, land surface, and ecosystem processes to improve simulations of hydrologic and ecologic conditions over mountain watersheds.

In collaboration with the National Climate Center of the China Meteorological Administration, Dr. Leung applies regional climate models to study atmospheric processes of the East Asian summer monsoon and aerosol effects on regional climate and hydrological cycle. She is collaborating with NCAR scientists on an effort to develop a next generation regional climate model based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for upscaling and downscaling.

Dr. Leung has published over 120 peer-reviewed papers and book chapters. She has been a session chair and an invited speakers in many workshops and conferences.

Research Interests

  • Regional climate modeling
  • Land-atmosphere interactions
  • Regional hydrologic cycle
  • Orographic precipitation
  • Climate variability and change

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Atmospheric Science, Texas A&M University
  • M.S., Atmospheric Science, Texas A&M University
  • B.S., (Honors) Physics & Statistics, Chinese University of Hong Kong

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Meteorological Society
  • American Geophysical Union
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science

Awards and Recognitions

  • Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • Fellow, American Meteorological Society
  • Member of the Washington State Academy of Sciences
  • Fellow, American Geophysical Union

PNNL Publications


  • Tesfa TK, LYR Leung, M Huang, H Li, N Voisin, and MS Wigmosta. 2014. "Scalability of grid- and subbasin-based land surface modeling approaches for hydrologic simulations." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119(6):3166-3184.  doi:10.1002/2013JD020493


  • Hagos SM, LYR Leung, S Rauscher, and T Ringler. 2013. "Errors Characteristics of Two Grid Refinement Approaches in Aquaplanet Simulations: MPAS-A and WRF." Monthly Weather Review 141(9):3022-3036.  doi:10.1175/MWR-D-12-00338.1
  • Leung LYR, T Ringler, WD Collins, M Taylor, and M Ashfaq. 2013. "A Hierarchical Evaluation of Regional Climate Simulations." Eos 94(34):297-298.  doi:10.1002/2013EO340001
  • Wan H, PJ Rasch, K Zhang, J Kazil, and LYR Leung. 2013. "Numerical Issues Associated with Compensating and Competing Processes in Climate Models: an Example from ECHAM-HAM." Geoscientific Model Development 6(3):861-874.  doi:10.5194/gmd-6-861-2013
  • Zhao C, LYR Leung, RC Easter, Jr, J Hand, and J Avise. 2013. "Characterization of Speciated Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing Over California." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(5):2372-2388.  doi:10.1029/2012JD018364
  • Chen S, J Huang, C Zhao, Y Qian, LYR Leung, and B Yang. 2013. "Modeling the Transport and Radiative Forcing of Taklimakan Dust over the Tibetan Plateau: A case study in the summer of 2006." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(2):797-812. 
  • Hagos SM, Z Feng, SA McFarlane, and LYR Leung. 2013. "Environment and the Lifetime of Tropical Deep Convection in a Cloud-Permitting Regional Model Simulation." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 70(8):2409-2425.  doi:10.1175/JAS-D-12-0260.1
  • Hou Z, M Huang, DH Bacon, and LYR Leung. 2013. "Parameter Dimensionality Reduction in Complex Earth System Models through Exploratory Data Analyses and Calibration." In MODFLOW and More 2013: Translating Science into Practice, June 2-5, 2013, Golden, Colorado, ed. R Maxwell, et al, pp. 159-163.  Integrated Ground Water Modeling Center (IGWMC), Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO. 
  • Huang M, Z Hou, LYR Leung, Y Ke, Y Liu, Z Fang, and Y Sun. 2013. "Uncertainty Analysis of Runoff Simulations and Parameter Identifiability in the Community Land Model - Evidence from MOPEX Basins." Journal of Hydrometeorology 14:1754-1772.  doi:10.1175/JHM-D-12-0138.1
  • Ke Y, LYR Leung, M Huang, and H Li. 2013. "Enhancing the Representation of Subgrid Land Surface Characteristics in Land Surface Models." Geoscientific Model Development 6:1609-1622.  doi:10.5194/gmd-6-1609-2013
  • Lee TY, X Tong, HW Shen, PC Wong, SM Hagos, and LYR Leung. 2013. "Feature Tracking and Visualization of Madden-Julian Osciallation in Climate Simulation." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 33(4):29-37.  doi:10.1109/MCG.2013.36
  • Leng G, M Huang, Q Tang, WJ Sacks, H Lei, and LYR Leung. 2013. "Modeling the Effects of Irrigation on Land Surface Fluxes and States over the Conterminous United States: Sensitivity to Input Data and Model Parameters." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(17):9789-9803.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50792
  • Li F, WD Collins, MF Wehner, and LYR Leung. 2013. "Hurricanes in an Aquaplanet World: Implications of the Impacts of External Forcing and Model Horizontal Resolution." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 5(2):134-145.  doi:10.1002/jame.20020
  • Li H, MS Wigmosta, H Wu, M Huang, Y Ke, AM Coleman, and LYR Leung. 2013. "A Physically Based Runoff Routing Model for Land Surface and Earth System Models." Journal of Hydrometeorology 14(3):808-828.  doi:10.1175/JHM-D-12-015.1
  • Li Y, and LYR Leung. 2013. "Potential impacts of the Arctic on interannual and interdecadal summer precipitation over China." Journal of Climate 26(3):889-917.  doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00075.1
  • Mearns LO, M Bukovsky, LYR Leung, Y Qian, R Arritt, W Gutowski, ES Takle, S Biner, D Caya, J Correia Jr., R Jones, L Sloan, and MA Snyder. 2013. "Reply to "Comments on 'The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview of Phase I Results'"." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94(7):1077-1078.  doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00013.1
  • Mearns LO, S Sain, LYR Leung, MS Bukovsky, S McGinnis, S Biner, D Caya, R Arritt, W Gutowski, ES Takle, MA Snyder, R Jones, AMB Nunes, S Tucker, D Herzmann, L McDaniel, and L Sloan. 2013. "Climate Change Projections of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP)." Climatic Change 120(4):965-975.  doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0831-3
  • O'Brien TA, F Li, WD Collins, S Rauscher, T Ringler, M Taylor, SM Hagos, and LYR Leung. 2013. "Observed Scaling in Clouds and Precipitation and Scale Incognizance in Regional to Global Atmospheric Models." Journal of Climate 26(23):9313-9333.  doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00005.1
  • Sun Y, Z Hou, M Huang, F Tian, and LYR Leung. 2013. "Inverse Modeling of Hydrologic Parameters Using Surface Flux and Runoff Observations in the Community Land Model." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 17:4995-5011.  doi:10.5194/hess-17-4995-2013
  • Voisin N, L Liu, MI Hejazi, TK Tesfa, H Li, M Huang, Y Liu, and LYR Leung. 2013. "One-way coupling of an integrated assessment model and a water resources model: evaluation and implications of future changes over the US Midwest ." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 17(No. 11):4555-4575.  doi:10.5194/hess-17-4555-2013
  • Voisin N, H Li, DL Ward, M Huang, MS Wigmosta, and LYR Leung. 2013. "On an improved sub-regional water resources management representation for integration into earth system models." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 17(9):3605-3622.  doi:10.5194/hess-17-3605-2013
  • Wang Y, J Fan, R Zhang, LYR Leung, and CN Franklin. 2013. "Improving Bulk Microphysics Parameterizations in Simulations of Aerosol Effects." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(11):5361-5379.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50432
  • Yang B, Y Qian, G Lin, LYR Leung, PJ Rasch, GJ Zhang, SA McFarlane, C Zhao, Y Zhang, H Wang, M Wang, and X Liu. 2013. "Uncertainty Quantification and Parameter Tuning in the CAM5 Zhang-McFarlane Convection Scheme and Impact of Improved Convection on the Global Circulation and Climate." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(2):395-415.  doi:10.1029/2012JD018213
  • Yang Z, T Wang, LYR Leung, KA Hibbard, AC Janetos, IP Kraucunas, JS Rice, B Preston, and T Wilbanks. 2013. "A modeling study of coastal inundation induced by storm surge, sea-level rise, and subsidence in the Gulf of Mexico." Natural Hazards 71(3):1771-1794.  doi:10.1007/s11069-013-0974-6
  • Zhao C, S Chen, LYR Leung, Y Qian, J Kok, RA Zaveri, and J Huang. 2013. "Uncertainty in Modeling Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing from Size Parameterization." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13:10733-10753.  doi:10.5194/acp-13-10733-2013


  • Balaguru K, P Chang, R Saravanan, LYR Leung, Z Xu, M Li, and J Hsieh. 2012. "Ocean Barrier Layers' Effect on Tropical Cyclone Intensification." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109(36):14343-14347.  doi:10.1073/pnas.1201364109
  • Fan J, D Rosenfeld, Y Ding, LYR Leung, and Z Li. 2012. "Potential Aerosol Indirect Effects on Atmospheric Circulation and Radiative Forcing through Deep Convection." Geophysical Research Letters 39:Article No. L09806.  doi:10.1029/2012GL051851
  • Hagos SM, and LYR Leung. 2012. "Large-scale Environmental Variables and Transition to Deep Convection in Cloud Resolving Model Simulations: A Vector Representation." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 4:M11001.  doi:10.1029/2012MS000155
  • Hagos SM, and LYR Leung. 2012. "On the relationship between uncertainties in tropical divergence and the hydrological cycle in global models." Journal of Climate 25(1):381-391.  doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00058.1
  • Yoon JH, LYR Leung, and J Correia Jr.. 2012. "Comparison of Dynamically and Statistically Downscaled Seasonal Climate Forecasts for the Cold Season over the United States." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 117:D21109.  doi:10.1029/2012JD017650
  • Done J, G Holland, C Bruyere, LYR Leung, and A Suzuki-Parker. 2012. "Modeling High-Impact Weather and Climate: Lessons From a Tropical Cyclone Perspective." NCAR Technical Notes NCAR/TN-490+STR:1-28.  doi:10.5065/D61834FM
  • Fan J, LYR Leung, Z Li, H Morrison, H Chen, Y Zhou, Y Qian, and Y Wang. 2012. "Aerosol Impacts on Clouds and Precipitation in Eastern China: Results from Bin and Bulk Microphysics." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 117:Article No. D00K36.  doi:10.1029/2011JD016537
  • Gao Y, LYR Leung, E Salathe, F Dominguez, B Nijssen, and DP Lettenmaier. 2012. "Moisture Flux Convergence in Regional and Global Climate Models: Implications for Droughts in the Southwestern United States Under Climate Change." Geophysical Research Letters 39:Article No. L09711.  doi:10.1029/2012GL051560
  • Gu Y, KN Liou, WL Lee, and LYR Leung. 2012. "Simulating 3-D Radiative Transfer Effects over the Sierra Nevada Mountains using WRF." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12(20):9965-9976.  doi:10.5194/acp-12-9965-2012
  • Hou Z, M Huang, LYR Leung, G Lin, and DM Ricciuto. 2012. "Sensitivity of Surface Flux Simulations to Hydrologic Parameters Based on an Uncertainty Quantification Framework Applied to the Community Land Model ." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 117:D15108.  doi:10.1029/2012JD017521
  • Ke Y, LYR Leung, M Huang, AM Coleman, H Li, and MS Wigmosta. 2012. "Development of High Resolution Land Surface Parameters for the Community Land Model." Geoscientific Model Development 5(6):1341-1362.  doi:10.5194/gmd-5-1341-2012
  • Li H, H Wu, M Huang, and LYR Leung. 2012. "Representing natural and manmade drainage systems in an earth system modeling framework." Irrigation & Drainage Systems Engineering 1(2):Article No. e107. 
  • Mearns LO, R Arritt, S Biner, M Bukovsky, S McGinnis, S Sain, D Caya, J Correia Jr., D Flory, W Gutowski, G Takle, R Jones, LYR Leung, W Moufouma-Okia, L McDaniel, A Nunes, Y Qian, J Roads, L Sloan, and MA Snyder. 2012. "The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview of Phase I Results." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 93(9):1337-1362.  doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00223.1
  • Post ES, A Grambsch, CP Weaver, P Morefield, J Huang, LYR Leung, CG Nolte, PJ Adams, XZ Liang, J Zhu, and H Mahoney. 2012. "Variation in Estimated Ozone-Related Health Impacts of Climate Change due to Modeling Choices and Assumptions." Environmental Health Perspectives 120(11):1559-1564.  doi:10.1289/ehp.1104271
  • Wu H, JS Kimball, H Li, M Huang, LYR Leung, and RF Adler. 2012. "A New Global River Network Database for Macroscale Hydrologic modeling." Water Resources Research 48:W09701.  doi:10.1029/2012WR012313
  • Yang B, Y Qian, G Lin, LYR Leung, and Y Zhang. 2012. "Some Issues in Uncertainty Quantification and Parameter Tuning: A Case Study of Convective Parameterization Scheme in the WRF Regional Climate Model." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12(5):2409-2427.  doi:10.5194/acp-12-2409-2012
  • Yang Q, WI Gustafson, Jr, JD Fast, H Wang, RC Easter, Jr, M Wang, SJ Ghan, LK Berg, LYR Leung, and H Morrison. 2012. "Impact of natural and anthropogenic aerosols on stratocumulus and precipitation in the Southeast Pacific: A regional modeling study using WRF-Chem." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12(18):8777-8796.  doi:10.5194/acp-12-8777-2012
  • Zhang Y, Y Qian, V Duliere, E Salathe, and LYR Leung. 2012. "ENSO anomalies over the Western United States: present and future patterns in regional climate simulations." Climatic Change 110(1):315-346.  doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0088-7
  • Zhao C, X Liu, and LYR Leung. 2012. "Impact of the Desert Dust on the Summer Monsoon System over Southwestern North America ." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12(8):3717-3731.  doi:10.5194/acp-12-3717-2012
  • Zhong SS, X Li, X Bian, WE Heilman, LYR Leung, and WI Gustafson, Jr. 2012. "Evaluation of Regional Climate Simulations over the Great Lakes Region Driven by Three Global Data Sets." Journal of Great Lakes Research 38(2):212-225.  doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2012.03.012


  • Hagos SM, and LYR Leung. 2011. "Moist thermodynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in a cloud resolving simulation." Journal of Climate 24(21):5571-5583.  doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4212.1
  • Hagos SM, LYR Leung, and J Dudhia. 2011. "Thermodynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in a Regional Model with Constrained Moisture." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 68(9):1974-1989.  doi:10.1175/2011JAS3592.1
  • Bennartz R, J Fan, J Rausch, LYR Leung, and AK Heidinger. 2011. "Pollution from China increases cloud droplet number, suppresses rain over the East China Sea." Geophysical Research Letters 38:Article No. L09704.  doi:10.1029/2011GL047235
  • Li H, M Huang, MS Wigmosta, Y Ke, AM Coleman, LYR Leung, A Wang, and DM Ricciuto. 2011. "Evaluating runoff simulations from the Community Land Model 4.0 using observations from flux towers and a mountainous watershed." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 116:Article No. D24120.  doi:10.1029/2011JD016276
  • Murthi A, KP Bowman, and LYR Leung. 2011. "Simulations of Precipitation Using NRCM and Comparisons with Satellite Observations and CAM: Annual Cycle." Climate Dynamics 36(9-10):1659-1679.  doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0878-z
  • Qian Y, MG Flanner, LYR Leung, and W Wang. 2011. "Sensitivity studies on the impacts of Tibetan Plateau snowpack pollution on the Asian hydrological cycle and monsoon climate." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11(5):1929-1948.  doi:10.5194/acp-11-1929-2011
  • Zhao C, X Liu, LYR Leung, and SM Hagos. 2011. "Radiative impact of mineral dust on monsoon precipitation variability over West Africa ." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11(5):1879-1893.  doi:10.5194/acp-11-1879-2011


  • Qian Y, D Gong, and LYR Leung. 2010. "Light rain events change over North America, Europe and Asia for 1973-2009." Atmospheric Science Letters 11(4):301-306.  doi:10.1002/asl.298
  • Banner JL, CS Jackson, ZL Yang, K Hayhoe, C Woodhouse, L Gulden, K Jacobs, G North, LYR Leung, WM Washington, X Jiang, and R Casteel. 2010. "Climate Change Impacts on Texas Water: A White Paper Assessment of the Past, Present and Future and Recommendations for Action." Texas Water Journal 1(1):1-19. 
  • Chung CE, V Ramanathan, G Carmichael, S Kulkarni, Y Tang, B Adhikary, LYR Leung, and Y Qian. 2010. "Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in Asia Derived From Regional Models With Atmospheric and Aerosol Data Assimilation." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10(13):6007-6024.  doi:10.5194/acp-10-6007-2010
  • Gutowski W, R Arritt, S Kawazoe, D Flory, ES Takle, S Biner, D Caya, R Jones, R Laprise, LYR Leung, LO Mearns, W Moufouma-Okia, A Nunes, Y Qian, JO Roads, L Sloan, and MA Snyder. 2010. "Regional Extreme Monthly Precipitation Simulated by NARCCAP RCMs." Journal of Hydrometeorology 11(6):1373-1379.  doi:10.1175/2010JHM1297.1
  • Leung LYR, M Huang, Y Qian, and X Liang. 2010. "Climate-Soil-Vegetation Control on Groundwater Table Dynamics and its Feedbacks in a Climate Model." Climate Dynamics 36(1-2):57-81.  doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0746-x
  • Lu N, ZT Taylor, W Jiang, C Jin, J Correia, Jr, LYR Leung, and PC Wong. 2010. "Climate Change Impacts on Residential and Commercial Loads in the Western U.S. Grid." IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 25(1):480-488. 
  • Ray P, C Zhang, M Moncrieff, J Dudhia, JM Caron, LYR Leung, and C Bruyere. 2010. "Role of the Atmospheric Mean State on the Initiation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in a Tropical Channel Model." Climate Dynamics 36(1-2):161-184.  doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0859-2
  • Salathe E, LYR Leung, Y Qian, and Y Zhang. 2010. "Regional Climate Model Projections for the State of Washington." Climatic Change 102(1-2):51-75.  doi:10.1007/s10584-010-9849-y
  • Zhao C, X Liu, LYR Leung, B Johnson, SA McFarlane, WI Gustafson, Jr, JD Fast, and RC Easter, Jr. 2010. "The spatial distribution of mineral dust and its shortwave radiative forcing over North Africa: Modeling sensitivities to dust emissions and aerosol size treatments ." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10(18):8821-8838.  doi:10.5194/acp-10-8821-2010


  • Qian Y, SJ Ghan, and LR Leung. 2009. "Downscaling hydroclimatic changes over the Western U.S. Based on CAM subgrid scheme and WRF regional climate simulations." International Journal of Climatology 30(5):675-693.  doi:10.1002/joc.1928
  • Qian Y, WI Gustafson, Jr, LYR Leung, and SJ Ghan. 2009. "Effects of soot-induced snow albedo change on snowpack and hydrological cycle in western United States based on Weather Research and Forecasting chemistry and regional climate simulations." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114:D03108.  doi:10.1029/2008JD011039
  • Fan J, T Yuan, JM Comstock, SJ Ghan, A Khain, LYR Leung, Z Li, VJ Martins, and M Ovchinnikov. 2009. "Dominant Role by Vertical Wind Shear in Regulating Aerosol Effects on Deep Convective Clouds." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114(D22206):, doi:10.1029/2009JD012352
  • Khain A, LYR Leung, BH Lynn, and SJ Ghan. 2009. "Effects of aerosols on the dynamics and microphysics of squall lines simulated by WRF with spectral bin and bulk parameterization schemes." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114(D22203):, doi:10.1029/2009JD011902
  • Leung LR, and Y Qian. 2009. "Atmospheric Rivers Induced Heavy Precipitation and Flooding in the Western U.S. Simulated by the WRF Regional Climate Model." Geophysical Research Letters 36:Article number: L03820.  doi:10.1029/2008GL036445
  • Lu N, ZT Taylor, W Jiang, J Correia, Jr, LR Leung, and PC Wong. 2009. "The Temperature Sensitivity of the Residential Load and Commercial Building Load." In IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting (PES '09), July 26-30, 2009, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, ed. .  IEEE, Piscataway, NJ.  doi:10.1109/PES.2009.5275654
  • Mearns LO, W Gutowski, R Jones, LYR Leung, S McGinnis, A Nunes, and Y Qian. 2009. "A Regional Climate Change Assessment Program for North America." Eos 90(36):,
  • Qian Y, D Gong, J Fan, LR Leung, R Bennartz, D Chen, and W Wang. 2009. "Heavy pollution suppresses light rain in China: observations and modeling." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114:article number D00K02.  doi:10.1029/2008JD011575
  • Wang Y, CN Long, LYR Leung, J Dudhia, SA McFarlane, JH Mather, SJ Ghan, and X Liu. 2009. "Evaluating regional cloud-permitting simulations of the WRF model for the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE, Darwin 2006)." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114(D21203):, doi:10.1029/2009JD012729
  • Weaver CP, XZ Liang, J Zhu, PJ Adams, P Amar, J Avise, M Caughey, J Chen, RC Cohen, E Cooter, JP Dawson, R Gilliam, A Gilliland, AH Goldstein, A Grambsch, D Grano, A Guenther, WI Gustafson, Jr, RA Harley, S He, B Hemming, C Hogrefe, HC Huang, SW Hunt, D Jacob, PL Kinney, K Kunkel, JF Lamarque, BK Lamb, N Larkin, LYR Leung, KJ Liao, J Lin, BH Lynn, K Manomaiphiboon, CS Mass, D KcKenzie, LJ Mickley, S O'Neil, C Nolte, SN Pandis, PN Racherla, C Rosenzweig, AG Russell, E Salathe, AL Steiner, E Tagaris, Z Tao, S Tonse, C Wiedinmyer, A Williams, DA Winner, JH Woo, S Wu, and DJ Wuebbles. 2009. "A Preliminary Synthesis of Modeled Climate Change Impacts on U.S. Regional Ozone Concentrations." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90(12):1843-1863 .  doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2568.1
  • Wong PC, LYR Leung, N Lu, MJ Scott, PS Mackey, HP Foote, J Correia, Jr, ZT Taylor, J Xu, SD Unwin, and AP Sanfilippo. 2009. "Designing a Collaborative Visual Analytics Tool for Social and Technological Change Prediction." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 29(5):58-68.  doi:10.1109/MCG.2009.92
  • Wong PC, LYR Leung, N Lu, ML Paget, J Correia, Jr, W Jiang, PS Mackey, ZT Taylor, YL Xie, J Xu, SD Unwin, and AP Sanfilippo. 2009. "Predicting the Impact of Climate Change on U.S. Power Grids and Its Wider Implications on National Security." In AAAI Spring Symposium on Technosocial Predictive Analytics, vol. SS-09-09, pp. 148-153.  AAAI Press, Menlo Park, CA. 
  • Zhu C, LR Leung, D Gochis, Y Qian, and DP Lettenmaier. 2009. "Evaluating the influence of antecedent soil moisture on variability of the North American Monsoon precipitation in the coupled MM5/VIC modeling system." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 1:Art. # 13, 22 pp.  doi:10.3894/JAMES.2009.1.13


  • Qian Y, Q Song, S Menon, S Yu, SC Liu, G Shi, LR Leung, and Y Luo. 2008. "Climate Impacts of Atmospheric Sulfate and Black Carbon Aerosols." In Changes In The Human-Monsoon System Of East Asia In The Context Of Global Change, ed. C Fu, JR Freney. JWB Stewart, pp. 115-132.  World Scientific Publishing Company, Imperial College Press, Hackensack, NJ. 
  • Adhikary B, Kulkarni, A Dallura, Y Tang, T Chai, LR Leung, Y Qian, CE Chung, V Ramanathan, and G Carmichael. 2008. "A regional scale chemical transport modeling of Asian aerosols with data assimilation of AOD observations using optimal interpolation technique." Atmospheric Environment 42(37):8600-8615.  doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.08.031
  • Huang M, X Liang, and LR Leung. 2008. "A Generalized Subsurface Flow Parameterization Considering Subgrid Spatial Variability of Recharge and Topography." Journal of Hydrometeorology 9(6):1151-1171.  doi:10.1175/2008JHM936.1
  • Kennedy TL, DS Gutzler, and LR Leung. 2008. "Predicting future threats to the long-term survival of Gila Trout using a high-resolution simulation of climate change." Climatic Change doi:10.1007/s10584-008-9503-0
  • Lu N, ZT Taylor, W Jiang, YL Xie, LR Leung, J Correia, Jr, PC Wong, PS Mackey, and ML Paget. 2008. Climate Change Impacts on Residential and Commercial Loads in the Western U.S. Grid PNNL-17826, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Zhang J, WC Wang, and LR Leung. 2008. "Contribution of Land-atmosphere Coupling to Summer Climate Variability over the Contiguous United States ." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 113(22):D22109.  doi:10.1029/2008JD010136
  • Zhang Y, XM Hu, LR Leung, and WI Gustafson, Jr. 2008. "Impacts of Regional Climate Change on Biogenic Emissions and Air Quality." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 113:D18310.  doi:10.1029/2008JD009965


  • Gustafson WI, Jr, and LR Leung. 2007. "Regional Downscaling for Air Quality Assessment: A Reasonable Proposition?" Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 88(8):1215-1227. 
  • Qian Y, and LR Leung. 2007. "A Long-term Regional Simulation and Observations of the Hydroclimate in China." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 112:, doi:10.1029/2006JD008134
  • Adhikary B, G Carmichael, Y Tang, LR Leung, Y Qian, JJ Schauer, EA Stone, V Ramanathan, and MV Ramana. 2007. "Characterization of the seasonal cycle of south Asian aerosols: A Regional-Scale Modeling Analysis. ." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 112(D22):D22S22 (22 pages).  doi:10.1029/2006JD008143
  • Qian Y, W Wang, LR Leung, and DP Kaiser. 2007. "Variability of Solar Radiation under Cloud-Free Skies in China: The Role of Aerosols." Geophysical Research Letters 34:Art. No. L12804.  doi:10.1029/2006GL028800
  • Tagaris E, K Manomaiphiboon, KJ Liao, LR Leung, JH Woo, S He, P Amar, and AG Russell. 2007. "Impacts of Global Climate Change and Emissions on Regional Ozone and Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations over United States." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 112:paper number: D14312.  doi:10.1029/2006JD008262


  • Leung LR, YH Kuo, and J Tribbia. 2006. "Research Needs and Directions of Regional Climate Modeling Using WRF and CCSM." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 87(12):1747-1751. 
  • Qian Y, DP Kaiser, LR Leung, and M Xu. 2006. "More Frequent Cloud-Free Sky and Less Surface Solar Radiation in China from 1955 to 2000." Geophysical Research Letters 33(1):L01812, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024586. 
  • Duffy P, R Arritt, J Coquard, W Gutowski, J Han, J Iorio, J Kim, LR Leung, J Roads, and E Zeledon. 2006. "Simulations of Present and Future Climates in the Western United States with Four Nested Regional Climate Models." Journal of Climate 19(6):873-895. 
  • Wong PC, HP Foote, LR Leung, ER Jurrus, DR Adams, and JJ Thomas. 2006. "Vector Fields Simplification-A Case Study of Visualizing Climate Modeling and Simulation Data Sets." In Visualization 2000. Proceedings, pp. 485 - 488, 596 .  IEEE , New York City, NY. 


  • Leung LR. 2005. "Effects of Climate Variability and Change on Mountain Water Resources in the Western U.S." In Global Change and Mountain Regions, Advances in Global Change Research , vol. 23, ed. UM Huber, HKM Bugmann, and MA Reasoner, pp. 355-364.  Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands. 
  • Hogrefe C, LR Leung, LJ Mickley, SW Hunt, and DA Winner. 2005. "Considering Climate Change in U.S. Air Quality Management." EM: Air & Waste Management Association's magazine for environmental managers October 2005:19-23. 
  • Leung LR, and WI Gustafson, Jr. 2005. "Potential Regional Climate Change and Implications to U.S. Air Quality." Geophysical Research Letters 32(16):L16711.  doi:10.1029/2005GL022911
  • Leung LR, and Y Qian. 2005. "Downscaling Extended Weather Forecasts for Hydrologic Prediction." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 86(3):332-333. 
  • Leung LR, and Y Qian. 2005. "Hydrologic Response to Climate Variability, Climate Change, and Climate Extreme in the U.S.: Climate Model Evaluation and Projections." In Regional Hydrological Impacts of Climate Change - Impact Assessment and Decision Making, IAHS Publication 295, ed. T. Wagener, et al., pp. 37-44.  IAHS Press, Wallingford, Oxfordshire. 
  • Zhao Z, LR Leung, and Y Qian. 2005. "Characteristics of Diurnal Variations of Rainfall in China for the Recent Years." Exchanges : newsletter of the Climate Variability and Predictability Programme (CLIVAR) 10(3):24-26. 


  • Easter RC, Jr, SJ Ghan, Y Zhang, RD Saylor, EG Chapman, NS Laulainen, H Abdul-Razzak, LR Leung, X Bian, and RA Zaveri. 2004. "MIRAGE: Model Description and Evaluation of Aerosols and Trace Gases." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 109(D20):D20210.  doi:10.1029/2004JD004571
  • Guo J, X Liang, and LR Leung. 2004. "A New Multiscale Flow Network Generation Scheme for Land Surface Models." Geophysical Research Letters 31(23):L23502.  doi:10.1029/2004GL021381
  • Guo J, X Liang, and LR Leung. 2004. "Impacts of Different Precipitation Data Sources on Water Budgets." Journal of Hydrology 298(1-4):311-334. 
  • Guo J, X Liang, and LYR Leung. 2004. "A New Multi-Scale Flow Network Generation Scheme for Land Surface Models." Geophysical Research Letters 31(23):Article no. 23502.  doi:10.1029/2004GL021381
  • Leung LR, Y Qian, X Bian, WM Washington, J Han, and JO Roads. 2004. "Mid-Century Ensemble Regional Climate Change Scenarios for the Western United States." Climatic Change 62(1-3):75-113. 
  • Leung LR, S Zhong, Y Qian, and Y Liu. 2004. "Evaluation of Regional Climate Simulations of the 1998 and 1999 East Asian Summer Monsoon Using the GAME/HUBEX Observational Data." Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan 82(6):1695-1713. 
  • Liang X, J Guo, and LR Leung. 2004. "Assessment of the effects of spatial resolutions on daily water flux simulations ." Journal of Hydrology 298(1-4):287-310 .  doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2003.07.007
  • Liang X, J Guo, and LR Leung. 2004. "Assessment of the Effects of Spatial Resolutions on Daily Water Flux Simulations." Journal of Hydrology 298(1-4):287-310. 
  • Wang Y, LR Leung, JL McGregor, DK Lee, WC Wang, Y Ding, and F Kimura. 2004. "Regional Climate Modeling: Progress, Challenges, and Prospects." Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan 82(6):1599-1628. 
  • Wong PC, HP Foote, DR Adams, WE Cowley, LR Leung, and JJ Thomas. 2004. "Visualizing Data Streams." Chapter 11 in Visual and Spatial Analysis: Advances in Data Mining, Reasoning, and Problem Solving, ed. Boris Kovalerchuk and James Schwing, pp. 265-291.  Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands. 
  • Wood AW, LR Leung, V Sridhar, and DP Lettenmaier. 2004. "Hydrologic Implications of Dynamical and Statistical Approaches to Downscaling Climate Model Outputs." Climatic Change 62(1-3):189-216. 


  • Leung LR, LO Mearns, F Giorgi, and RL Wilby. 2003. "Regional Climate Research: Needs and Opportunities." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 84(1):89-95. 
  • Qian Y, LR Leung, SJ Ghan, and F Giorgi. 2003. "Regional Climate Effects of Aerosols Over China: Modeling and Observation." Tellus Series B, Chemical and Physical Meteorology 55(4):914-934. 
  • Leung LR, Y Qian, and X Bian. 2003. "Hydroclimate of the Western United States Based on Observations and Regional Climate Simulations of 1981-2000. Part I: Seasonal Statistics." Journal of Climate 16(12):1892-1911. 
  • Leung LR, Y Qian, J Han, and JO Roads. 2003. "Intercomparison of Global Reanalyses and Regional Simulations of Cold Season Water Budgets in the Western United States." Journal of Hydrometeorology 4(6):1067-1087. 
  • Leung LR, Y Qian, X Bian, and AG Hunt. 2003. "Hydroclimate of the Western United States Based on Observations and Regional Climate Simulations of 1981-2000. Part II: Mesoscale ENSO Anomalies." Journal of Climate 16(12):1912-1928. 
  • Leung LR, and Y Qian. 2003. "Changes in Seasonal and Extreme Hydrologic Conditions of the Georgia Basin/Puget Sound in an Ensemble Regional Climate Simulation for the Mid-Century." Canadian Water Resources Journal 28(4):605-631. 
  • Leung LR, and Y Qian. 2003. "The Sensitivity of Precipitation and Snowpack Simulations to Model Resolution via Nesting in Regions of Complex Terrain." Journal of Hydrometeorology 4(6):1025-1043. 
  • Wigmosta MS, and LR Leung. 2003. "Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Streamflow and Flooding in Snow Dominated Forest Basins." Chapter 2 in Environmental Change and Geomorphic Hazards in Forests: IUFRO Research Series, No. 9, ed. R.C Sidle, pp. 7-24.  CABI Publishing, Wallingford, United Kingdom. 


  • Thomson AM, RA Brown, SJ Ghan, RCC Izaurralde, NJ Rosenberg, and LR Leung. 2002. "Elevation dependence of winter wheat production in eastern Washington state with climate change: A methodological study." Climatic Change 54:141-164. 
  • Chin G, Jr, LR Leung, KL Schuchardt, and DK Gracio. 2002. "New Paradigms in Problem Solving Environments for Scientific Computing." In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, pp. 39-46.  ACM Press, New York, NY. 
  • Leung LR, X Bian, and Y Qian. 2002. "Long-Term Regional Climate Simulations Driven by Two Global Reanalyses and a GCM for the Western United States." In 4th International Scientific Conference on Global Energy and Water Cycle, 13th Symposium on Global Change and Climate Variations, pp. 65-67.  American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA. 
  • Wong PC, HP Foote, DL Kao, LR Leung, and JJ Thomas. 2002. "Mulitvariate Visualization with Data Fusion." Information Visualization 1(3-4):182-193. 
  • Wong PC, HP Foote, DL Kao, LR Leung, and JJ Thomas. 2002. "Mulitvariate Visualization with Data Fusion." In Infomation Visualization, vol. 1, no. 3/4, ed. Chaomei Chen, pp. 182-193.  MacMillan, Hampshire, United Kingdom. 


  • Chin G, Jr, LR Leung, KL Schuchardt, and DK Gracio. 2001. "Conceptualizing a Collaborative Problem-Solving Environment for Regional Climate Modeling and Assessment of Climate Impacts." In Computational science - ICCS 2001 : international conference, San Francisco, CA, USA, May 28-30, 2001 : proceedings /, vol. 2073, no. 1, ed. Vassil Alexandrov, pp. 159-174.  Springer, New York, NY. 
  • Ghan SJ, NS Laulainen, RC Easter, Jr, R Wagener, S Nemesure, EG Chapman, Y Zhang, and LR Leung. 2001. "Evaluation of Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing in MIRAGE." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 106(D6):5295-5316. 
  • Ghan SJ, RC Easter, Jr, EG Chapman, H Abdul-Razzak, Y Zhang, LR Leung, NS Laulainen, RD Saylor, and RA Zaveri. 2001. "A Physically-Based Estimate of Radiative Forcing by Anthropogenic Sulfate Aerosol." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 106(D6):5279-5293. 


  • Leung LR, and MS Wigmosta. 2000. "The roles of subgrid topography on land-atmosphere interactions." In 15th Conference On Hydrology, pp. 194-197.  American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA. 
  • Wong PC, HP Foote, LR Leung, DR Adams, and JJ Thomas. 2000. "Data Signature and Visualization of Scientific Data Sets." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 20(2):12-15. 


  • Leung LR, AF Hamlet, DP Lettenmaier, and A Kumar. 1999. "Simulations of the ENSO Hydroclimate Signals in the Pacific Northwest Columbia River Basin." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 80(11):2313-2329. 
  • Leung LR, and MS Wigmosta. 1999. "Potential climate change impacts on mountain watersheds in the Pacific Northwest." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 35(6):1463-1471 . 
  • Leung LR, and SJ Ghan. 1999. "Pacific Northwest Sensitivity Simulated by a Regional Climate Model Driven by a GCM. Part I: Control Simulations." Journal of Climate 12(7):2010-2030. 
  • Leung LR, and SJ Ghan. 1999. "Pacific Northwest Sensitivity Simulated by a Regional Climate Model Driven by a GCM. Part II: 2XCO2 Simulations." Journal of Climate 12(7):2031-2053. 
  • Leung LR, SJ Ghan, Z Zhao, Y Luo, WC Wang, and HL Wei. 1999. "Intercomparison of Regional Climate Simulations of the 1991 Summer Monsoon in Eastern Asia." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 104:6425-6454. 
  • Ghan SJ, LR Leung, and J McCaa. 1999. "A Comparison of Three Different Modeling Strategies for Evaluating Cloud and Radiation Parameterizations." Monthly Weather Review 127(9):1967-1984. 


  • Leung LR, and SJ Ghan. 1998. "Parameterizing Subgrid Orographic Precipitation and Surface Cover in Climate Models." Monthly Weather Review 126(12):3271-3291. 

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